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Approximately what percent of salivary secretions come from the parotid gland, and describe the type of secretion.
25, watery saliva
As flow rate increases, which ion concentrations in the saliva increase, and list them in the order of concentration (least to most).
Na, Cl, and HCO3 increase, in order - K, Cl, HCO3, Na
As the initial saliva moves from the acinus through the duct, what happens to it?
becomes hypotonic
By what is the gastric phase of pancreatic secretion initiated?
stomach distention
By which nerve(s) are pancreatic secretions in the gastric phase mediated, and what kind of secretions are produced?
vagus, mainly enzymatic
Chyme activation of CCK has what two primary effects?
gallbladder to release bile, sphincter of Oddi to relax and let bile through
Contractions of the thick wall of the stomach are known as _________ and occur at a rate of ______
slow waves, 3 - 5 per min
Describe the cephalic phase of pancreatic secretion in terms of its initiation, by which nerve(s) it is mediated, and what type of secretions it generates.
initiated by smell and taste, mediated by the vagus nerve, produces mainly enzymatic secretions
Describe the phases of gastric secretion in terms of how much HCl production is in each?
cephalic - 30%, gastric - 60%, intestinal - inhibits HCl production
Describe the type of salivary secretion from the sublingual glands, and approximately what percent of salivary secretions do these account for?
mostly mucus, 5%
Do the nerve bundles in the extrinsic system contain afferents, efferents, or both?
both
H. Pylori has what effect in the duodenum?
inhibits somatostatin, leading to an increase in protons in the duodenum, and also inhibits HCO3
How is the swallowing reflex initiated?
when food contacts the pharynx, mechanoreceptors are activated
If the primary peristaltic wave doesn't propel food to the stomach, the _______ triggers a second wave.
enteric system
In the lumen of pancreatic ducts, which ions increase with increased flow rate, which ions decrease, and list them in order of concentration (least to most)
HCO3 increases, Cl decreases, in order - K, Cl, HCO3, Na
In which phase does the upper esophageal sphincter relax and the first peristaltic wave initiate?
pharyngeal
Most salivary duct blockages affect which glands, and are mostly caused by what?
parotid, calcium stones
Name the 4 components of gastric juice?
HCl, Pepsinogen, Intrinsic factor, mucus
Name the three glands that deliver salivary secretions.
Parotid, mandibular, sublingual
Parasympathetic innervation is supplied primarily via the _____ and _____ nerves, which supply the upper and lower GI respectively.
vagus, pelvic
Peptic chief cells of the oxyntic gland secrete what?
pepsinogen
Regulation of gastric constraints is by what two factors?
pH and fat in the duodenum
Sjogren's disease is an autoimmune disease that targets what, and how is it treated?
exocrine glands, muscarininc agonists to increase saliva flow
somatostatin not only negatively regulates the H-K-ATPase, but also what other regulatory factors?
gastrin and histamine
Sympathetic innervation of the GI tract comes from fibers that run between the __________ and _________, and between these _________ and the gut.
spinal cord, prevertebral ganglia; ganglia
The basic ionic flow of the gastric parietal cell is that ____ is secreted into the lumen and _____ into the blood.
HCl, HCO3
The fibers of the vagus and pelvic nerves go directly into the walls of the GI tract, interacting with the ____________.
plexus layers
The frequency of slow waves is controlled by the ___________ system, whereas the intensity is modulated by the ____________ system.
intrinsic, extrinsic
The GI tract is regulated by the ________ and the ________, the latter of which is contained within the wall of the GI tract.
extrinsic NS, intrinsic NS
The main effect of the transporters in the pancreatic ductal cells is to transport ______ into the lumen and ______ out into the blood.
HCO3 into the lumen, protons into the blood
The parasympathetic and sympathetic stimulation have what effect on secretion?
both increase secretion, increase HCO3 efflux into the lumen, increase the contraction of myoepithelial cells
The parasympathetic system will increase or decrease slow wave frequency and intensity?
increase
The parietal cells of the oxyntic gland secretes ______ and ________.
HCl and intrinsic factor
The various pumps in the salivary ductal cells effectively pump Na, Cl, K, and HCO3 in which directions?
net efflux of Na, Cl out of cell and into the blood, and K, HCO3 into the lumen
Trypsinogen is activated by ____________ to trypsin.
duodenal enterokinase
What are the components of bile?
bile acids, phospholipids, cholesterol, bile pigments, inorganic compounds
What are the constraints on the time of gastric emptying?
keep the rate slow enough for neutralization of acids, slow enough for chyme to be adequately churned
What are the functions of saliva?
lubrication, solubilizing for tasting, antibacterial, starts digestion via amylase and lingual lipase
What are the main functions of pancreatic juice?
neutralizing acid coming from stomach into duodenum, and secretes enzymes for molecule (carb/protein/lipids) breakdown
What are the major inhibitors of the H-K ATPase in the stomach?
somatostatin, prostaglandins
What are the phases of pancreatic secretion?
cephalic, gastric, intestinal
What factors form the protective barrier between the lumen and gastrointestinal mucosa?
HCO3, mucus, prostaglandins, mucosal blood flow, growth factors
What is the most common cause of acute pancreatitis?
blockage of the pancreatic duct by gallstones
What percent of salivary secretions comes from the mandibular glands, and describe the secretion.
70, watery saliva + mucus
What processes relating to the bolus reaching the bottom of the esophagus are modulated by vagal input?
lower sphincter opening and orad region of the stomach relaxing (receptive relaxation)
Which cells of the stomach secrete mucus, HCO3, and pepsinogen?
mucosal neck cells
Which components of bile are amphipathic?
bile acids and phospholipids
Which components of bile form part of micelles?
bile acids, phospholipids, cholesterol
Which enzyme activates chymotrypsinogen, proelastase, and procarboxipeptidase?
trypsin
Which phase of pancreatic secretion delivers both enzymatic and aqueous secretions?
intestinal phase
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