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What kind of joint is the pubic symphysis?
secondary fibrocartlaginous
The most lateral part of the pubic crest is the ________.
Pubic tubercle
What two aspects of the hip bone lie in a vertical plane, indicating that the hip bones are inclined anteriorly?
ASIS and pubic symphysis
In supine position, the umbilicus lies between ____ and _____, the latter of which is also the level where the abdominal aorta bifurcates into the R and L common iliac
L3 and L4
If a patient comes in with a gunshot wound at the level of the umbilicus, what major vessel may have been involved?
abdominal aorta
The tendinous inscriptions/Linea transversa indicate what?
Where the rectus sheath is firmly attached to the rectus abdominis muscle
The costal margin is the upturned ends of costal cartilages ____ through _____.
7 - 10.
What planes are used to divide the abdomen into regions?
Subcostal, transtubercular, midclavicular
The subcostal plane is usually at the level of L___, and passes through the inferior border of which costal cartilage?
3, 10th
The transtubercular plane passes through the _______________ and the upper border of the body of the ______ vertebra.
iliac tubercles, L5
From superior to inferior, what are the three lateral regions of the abdomen?
hypochondric, lumbar, inguinal (iliac)
From superior to inferior, what are the three medial regions of the abdomen?
epigastric, umbilical, hypogastric
Which organ is associated with the R hypochondric region and which with the L hypochondric region?
liver, spleen
Which organ sits in the epigastric region?
stomach
Which organs sit in the R and L lumbar regions, respectively?
kidneys
What clinical presentation is associated with R and L iliac regions?
hernias
What organ is associated with the hypogastric region?
bladder
The line between the pubic symphysis and the ASIS is bisected by the _________.
mid-inguinal point
What anatomical landmark lies just superior to the point of palpation of the femoral artery pulse?
mid-inguinal point
What landmark can one use to help in identifying the origin of an indirect inguinal hernia?
mid-inguinal point
The midpoint of the inguinal ligament lies halfway between the ________ and the __________.
pubic tubercle and ASIS
The origin of which vessel lies just medial to the midpoint of the inguinal ligament?
inferior epigastric
The superficial fascia of the anterior abdominal wall is divided into a fatty layer and a membranous layer called what, respectively?
Campers, Scarpa''s
How far does the Campers layer of the superficial fascia extend in men?
after fusing with the deeper layer and losing its fat, it continues to the cover the penis and scrotum
The specialized fascial layer in which the Campers and Scarpa''s fuse is called what, and what special feature does it have?
Dartos fascia, smooth muscle fibers
In women, the Campers layer of superficial anterior abdominal fascia extends how far?
retains some fat, and becomes part of the labia majora
Which layer of superficial fascia continues from the anterior abdomen into the thighs, and what happens to the other layer?
Campers, Scarpa fuses with the deep fascia of the upper thigh (Fascia Lata)
When the Scarpa layer extends to the scrotum, it becomes the _________.
Colles fascia
What is the origin of the external obliques?
outer surfaces of lower 8 ribs
Where do the external obliques insert?
xiphoid, linea alba, pubic crest, pubic tubercle, anterior half of iliac crest
What are the lateral and medial attachments of the inguinal ligament?
lateral - ASIS, medial - pubic tubercle
The arching of the inferior fibers of the ___________ forms the inguinal ligament?
aponeurosis of the external obliques
What is the innervation of the external obliques?
lower 5 intercostal nerves and subcostal nerve
What are the main actions of the external obliques
compress and support abdominal viscera, flex and rotate trunk
What is the attachment of the internal obliques?
thoracocolumbar fascia, anterior two thirds of iliac crest and lateral half of inguinal ligament
What is the insertion of the internal obliques?
inferior border of the 10th - 12th ribs, linea alba, and pecten pubis via conjoint tendon
What is the innervation of the internal obliques?
terminal branches of the lower five intercostal nerves, subcostal nerve, and first lumbar nerves (ilioinguinal and iliohypogastric)
What is the origin of the transversus abdominis?
internal surfaces of 7-12th costal cartilages, and Same as internal obliques
What is the insertion of the transversus abdominis?
Linea alba with aponeurosis of internal oblique, pubic crest, and pecten pubis via conjoint tendon
The conjoint tendon comes from the fusion of which muscles?
internal obliques, transversus abdominus
What is the innervation of the transversus abdominis?
same as internal obliques
What is the function of the transversus abdominis?
compress and support abdominal viscera
From where is the rectus sheath derived?
Aponeuroses of the anterior abdominal wall muscles
What is the origin of the rectus abdominis?
pubic symphysis, pubic crest
What is the insertion of the rectus abdominis?
xiphoid process and 5th to 7th costal cartilages
What is the function of the rectus abdominis?
Flexes trunk and compresses abdominal viscera
What is the innervation of the rectus abdominus?
Thoracoabdominal nerves (ventral rami of the lower six thoracic spinal nerves via the lower intercostal and subcostal nerves)
At the level above the costal margin, the rectal sheath is composed of __________.
only external oblique aponeurosis
From the costal margin to the point halfway between the umbilicus and pubis, what layers compose the anterior layer of the rectal sheath?
the external oblique and anterior layer of internal oblique aponeurosis form the anterior layer of the rectus sheath
From the costal margin to the point halfway between the umbilicus and pubis, what layers compose the posterior layer of the rectal sheath?
aponeurosis of transversus abdominus, posterior layer of the internal oblique aponeurosis
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