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George Washington
1st president (1789-1796). Before John Adams. Party: In-between Democrat and Federalist. Head of the Continental Army- led colonists to victory. Set precedent for only serving 2 terms and for a cabinet. Farewell Address, 1796---Washington warned against the evils of political parties and \\\"tangling alliances\\\" abroad. Committed to strong central government. Proclaimed neutrality in war between France and England (1793). Sent troops to suppress the Whiskey Rebellion in Pennsylvania (1794).
John Adams
2nd president (1797-1801). After Washington, before Jefferson. VP: Jefferson. Party: Federalist. The XYZ Affair ocurred during his presidency. Midnight Appointments---In an attempt to leave his mark on the next administration, Adams spent his final hours in office appointing judges and lesser court officials. During his administration, the Alien and Sedition Acts--designed to suppress political opposition--were passed.
Thomas Jefferson
3rd president (1801-1809). After John Adams, before Madison. Party: Democratic-Republican. VPs: Aaron Burr, George Clinton. Tripolitan War 1801-1805 ---Jefferson refused to pay tribute to pirates of the Barbary States who were harassing American ships; Tripoli declared war on the U.S. but was defeated in 1805. Louisiana Purchase, 1803--- For a cost of $15 million, U.S. purchased from France all land west of the Mississippi, doubling the size of the United States. Lewis and Clark Expedition, 1804-1806---Jefferson commissioned Meriwether Lewis and William Clark to embark on a two and ½ year expedition to explore the new American lands. He wanted to be remembered not for his presidency, but for the roles he played in the creation of the Declaration of Independence, the Virginia Statute of Religious Freedom and the University of Virginia.
James Madison
4th president (1809-1817). After Jefferson, before Monroe. Party: Democratic-Republicans. VPs: George Clinton, Elbridge Gerry. He was president during the War of 1812 (to 1814) which his critics dubbed \\\"Mr. Madison\\\'s War.\\\" Along with John Jay and Alexander Hamilton, he was a co-author of the Federalist Papers. His wife, Dolly Payne Todd, is famous for her delightful personality and social skills. He was a central figure in the development of the United States Constitution and kept the most complete notes of anyone at the Constitutional Convention. Madison stood close to five feet five inches and weighed one hundred pounds.
James Monroe
5th president (1817-1825). After Madison, before JQA. Party: Democratic-Republican. Missouri Compromise, 1820---This law maintained a tenuous balance between number of free and slave states in the Union by admitting Missouri as slave state and Maine as a free state (developed by Henry Clay). Monroe Doctrine—Monroe’s address to Congress warning European powers against intervention in the Western Hemisphere (written by JQA). Panic of 1819---Bad banking practices and the War of 1812 sent the nation into an economic panic that lasted until 1821. He agreed to purchase Florida from Spain in 1819 (Adams-Onís Treaty). His presidency was known as \\\"The Era of Good Feelings,\\\" despite a serious recession in 1819.
John Quincy Adams
6th president (1825-1829). After Monroe, before Jackson. Party: Democratic-Republican. VP: John Calhoun. He came into power through the \\\"corrupt bargain\\\" (allegedly conspired with Henry Clay- gave him position of Secretary of State- to undermine Jackson and force his election through the House). Tariff of Abominations, 1828 —This high tariff was proposed by John Q. Adams and signed into law; it was imposed on imported manufactured goods (lowered his popularity). He served in the House of Representatives for 17 years and remains the only president to hold office in the House after his presidential term expired. During his House tenure, he was an opponent of slavery. By the time he died, he was known as a champion of freedom of speech. Henry Clay, the legendary orator of the House, served as his Secretary of State.
Andrew Jackson
7th president (1829-1837). After JQA, before Martin Van Buren. Party: Democrat. VPs: John C. Calhoun, Martin Van Buren. poils System--- Jackson rewarded many of his political supporters with government jobs. His critics coined the phrase the \\\"spoils system.\\\" ariff and Nullification—In opposition to the Tariff of Abominations, the southern states, led by John C. Calhoun, declared that states had the right to nullify a law. Jackson used armed forcesto collect import duties; the crisis was resolved with a compromise bill sponsored by Henry Clay. The Bank of the United States---Jackson vetoed the charter for the second Bank of the United States on the grounds that the bank was unconstitutional and favored eastern manufacturers instead of the common people. He was the first president to ride on a railroad train, the first to be born in a log cabin and the first president to be nominated by a political party. He killed Charles Dickinson in a duel which he fought to preserve his wife\\\'s honor.
Martin Van Buren
8th president (1837-1841). After Jackson, before William Henry Harrison. Party: Democratic. VP: Richard M. Johnson. Panic of 1837—This economic panic caused by crop failures, the fact that banks stopped converting paper money into gold and silver and an unfavorable balance of trade with England. Texas Annexation---After winning its independence, Texas applied for U.S. statehood as a slave state. Van Buren opposed the annexation because it exacerbated the slavery debate. He was described as a \\\"dandy,\\\" and known to be an exquisite dresser who enjoyed expensive wine and rich food.
William Henry Harrison
9th president (1841). After Martin Van Buren, before Tyler. Party: Whig. VP: John Tyler. He served one month, the shortest term of any president. He gave the longest inauguration speech of any president (8,445 words). He was the first candidate to have a campaign slogan---\\\"Tippecanoe and Tyler, Too.\\\" John Tyler 10th president (1841-1845). After W. Harrison, before Polk. Party: Whig. VP: none. Treaty of Wanghia, 1844---U.S. gained access to Chinese ports. Annexation of Texas, 1845---Texas was admitted to the Union with a dividing line separating slave and free parts of the state. Preemption Act, 1841---Tyler signed the bill recognizing squatter’s rights to public lands into law. He was nicknamed \\\"His Accidency,\\\" due to the way in which he assumed office (W. Harrison died a month into his presidency). He was known as a president without a party, and was threatened with impeachment by both the Whigs and the Democratic party.
James K. Polk
11th president (1845-1849). After Tyler, before Taylor. Party: Democratic. Oregon Treaty, 1846---This treaty with Great Britain fixed the border between the U.S. Northwest and Great Britain granting the U.S. land that is now the present day states of Oregon and Washington. Mexican War, 1846-1848---War fought largely due to strained relations by the U.S. annexation of Texas and a border dispute between the U.S. and Mexico. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgoended the war and fixed the border at the Rio Grande River. The 1846 Walker tariff- a Democratic bill that reversed the high rates of tariffs imposed by the Whig-backed \\\"Black Tariff\\\" of 1842 under president John Tyler. He was president during the California gold rush. He is considered the \\\"Manifest Destiny\\\" president and acquired the most property for the United States since the Louisiana Purchase.
Zachary Taylor
12th president (1849-1850). After Polk, before Fillmore. Party: Whig. VP: Fillmore. Clayton-Bulwer Treaty, 1850---Treaty between the U.S. and Great Britain stipulating that any canal constructed across Central America was to be neutral and that neither country could colonize any part of Central America. He was the second president to die--from illness-- in office and the second president to die in the White House (first was Harrison). His nickname was \\\"Old Rough and Ready,\\\" due to his slovenly dress. After his participation in the Mexican-American War, he was considered a military hero.
Millard Fillmore
13th president (1850-1853). After Taylor, before Pierce. Party: Whig. VP: none. Compromise of 1850—This compromise which Fillmore embraced allowed California to be admitted as a free state and enforced the Fugitive Slave Act with suspected fugitives being denied the right to a trial; it helped ward off the Civil War. Perry’s Mission to Japan, 1852-1854—Matthew Perry, dispatched on a mission to Japan by Fillmore, was successful in opening two Japanese ports for American trade. \\\"God knows that I detest slavery, but it is an existing evil, for which we are not responsible, and we must endure it, till we can get rid of it without destroying the last hope of free government in the world.\\\"
Franklin Pierce
14th president (1853-1857). After Fillmore, before Buchanan. Party: Democratic. Kansas-Nebraska Act, 1854---This act repealed the Missouri Compromise, allowing settlers in the Kansas, Nebraska territories to decide for themselves whether to permit slavery. It led to a bloodyoutbreak in Kansas with casualties numbering 200 (John Brown). Gadsden Purchase---The U.S. purchased 45,535 miles of land for $10 million. The land today now makes up southernmost Arizona and New Mexico. During his term, feelings in congress were so intense that fist-fights broke out on the floor of the congress. During his term, Kansas was known as \\\"Bloody Kansas\\\" due to the state\\\'s intense turmoil over the issue of slavery.
James Buchanan
15th president (1857-1861). After Pierce, before Lincoln. Party: Democratic. Panic of 1857--- The failure of the Ohio Life Insurance Company of Cincinnati heralded the start of an economic panic which lasted until the start of the Civil War. Secession—Before Buchanan left the presidency seven southern states----Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, South Carolina and Texas—left the Union. He was the only president never to be married. During his term, the John Brown raid occurred on Harper\\\'s Ferry. During his term, the Lincoln-Douglas debates were being held in Illinois. During his term the Dred Scott decision was passed which decreed that a slave was not a person but forever property. Because of the Civil War, Buchanan actually believed he would be the last president of the United States.
Abraham Lincoln
16th president (1861-1865) (elected twice). After Buchanan, before A. Johnson. Party: Republican. VPs: Hannibal Hamlin, Andrew Johnson. Homestead Act, 1862---Federal law granted free land to settlers who stayed on the land for five years. Morrill Act, 1862---The Federal government granted land to each state which was then sold to finance agricultural and mechanical colleges. On January 23, 1863, he issued the Emancipation Proclamation. He was the first president to be assassinated. He was shot five days after the end of the Civil War by John Wilkes Booth. Just one month after his inauguration, the Civil War began.
Andrew Johnson
17th president (1865-1869). After Lincoln, before Grant. Party: Democratic. VP: none (came into power when Lincoln was assassinated). Reconstruction—Johnson sought to restore the legal status of the South. The South thwarted this by passing Black Codes limiting the freedom of blacks. Radical Republicans responded by passing the Civil Rights Act of 1866. Impeachment---The Tenure of Office Act, vetoed by Johnson and passed by the Senate, proscribed the president from removing certain public officials without the Senate’s consent. InFebruary of 1868, Johnson dismissed his Secretary of War; the House voted to impeach him 126-47 based on violation of the Tenure of Office Act. The Senate later acquitted him by one vote. Purchase of Alaska, 1867---The U.S. purchased Alaska from Russia for the sum of $7.2 million (\\\"Seward\\\'s Folly- Seward was his Secretary of State). He resisted Congress\\\' efforts to pass punitive restriction acts over his veto.
Ulysses S. Grant
18th president (1869- 1877). After A. Johnson, before Hayes. Party: Republican. He was once fined $20 for speeding on his horse. Scandals—Black Friday (Fisk and Gould), Credit Moblier, tax corruption and the Whiskey Ring were some of the scandals that marked Grant’s administration. Reconstruction—Grant maintained the use of Federal forces in the South. During Grant’s administration, the Freedman’s Bureau, which helped blacks transition from slavery to freedom, was dismantled. 15th Amendment Ratified, 1870—The 15th Amendment, giving all qualified male citizens the right to vote, was ratified. He was known for being personally honest but surrounded by dishonest people. Also known for being a drunk and generally a disaster of a president.
Rutherford B. Hayes
19th president (1877-1881). After Grant, before Garfield. Party: Republican. Reconstruction Ends, 1877---Hayes ended reconstruction with the withdrawal of the last federal troops from the South. This was as a result of the compromise resulting from the deadlocked presidential of 1876. Resumption of the Specie Act---First enacted under Grant, this act enforced the redemption of United States dollars tendered after January 1, 1879, with gold. Civil Service Reform, 1877—Hayes issued an executive order barring all federal employees from taking part in political activities. He pressed for further reforms but they were rejected by Congress. He was nicknamed \\\"His Fraudulency,\\\" because of the alleged \\\"stolen\\\" election of 1876. His honesty was a source of anger for his political allies. His wife, Lucy Webb, was the first First Lady to graduate from a college (Wesleyan). She did not allow drinking in the White House and was known as \\\"Lemonade Lucy.\\\" Her good humor, intelligence and cheerful spirit made her a popular First Lady.
James A. Garfield
20th president (1881-1881). After Hayes, before Arthur. Party: Republican. VP: Arthur. Reform Efforts—Garfield, known as a reformer, was unable to do much because he was shot on July 2, 1881 and died on September 6, 188l. He was assassinated by Charles Guiteau, a frustrated office-seeker. Star Route Scandal—Garfield investigated charges that bribery was being used to award mail routes. The scandal helped lead to the adoption of the civil service reform. Red Cross Initiated-- The American Red Cross started operations in 1881. He was the last president born in a log cabin. He was considered a great orator.
Chester A. Arthur
21st president (1881-1885). After Garfield, before Cleveland. Party: Republican. VP: none (assumed office following Garfield\\\'s assassination). Chinese Exclusion Act, 1882—Congress passed a 20 year ban against Chinese immigration; Arthur vetoed it but signed an act reducing the ban to 10 years. Pendleton Act---This act is the basis for civil service reform; it provided examinations for federal jobs, denied jobs to known alcoholics and attempted to reduce nepotism. Tariff Reforms---Arthur continued efforts to reform American restrictive tariffs. This issue was a contentious one during the post- Civil War period. He dedicated the Washington Monument on February 21, 1885. He was known for his honesty and efficiency as president. He was nicknamed \\\"Elegant Arthur\\\" because of his \\\"dandy\\\" dressing. Although he used the \\\"spoils system,\\\" he was a reformer.
Grover Cleveland
22nd president (1885-1889) and 24th president (1893-1897). After Arthur, before/after B. Harrison, before McKinley. Party: Democratic. He is the only president to have been elected to two non-consecutive terms. During his term, the Statue of Liberty was unveiled in New York Harbor. Labor discord and violence erupted during his term (Pullman Strike).
Benjamin Harrison
23rd president (1889-1893). After/before Cleveland. Party: Republican. Dependent and Disability Pensions Act, 1890--- This law granted compensation to veterans disabled for nonmilitary reasons and extended compensation to veterans dependents. Sherman Anti-Trust Act, 1890---This act prohibited the establishment of monopolies (not very effective, but the first one of its kind). Six states entered the United States during his administration: ND, SD, MT, ID, WY and WA. Electric lights were installed in the White House during his term. His wife never turned them on because she was frightened of the switches.
William McKinley
25th president (1897-1901). After Cleveland, before T. Roosevelt. Party: Republican. VPs: Annexation of Hawaii Under this act, Hawaii was annexed, in July of 1898, to the United States of America. Spanish-American War, 1898 A combination of factors---Cuba struggling for its independence from Spain, reports of Spanish atrocities and exaggerated accounts from the \\\"yellow press\\\"--- led to this two-year war. Open Door Policy and the Boxer Rebellion, 1899-1900 This policy expressed President McKinley’s intention that all nations share the same trade policy with China and sought to removediscriminatory tariffs and other provisions. Chinese nationalists, known as Boxers, rebelled, attempted to seize Peking and killed many western missionaries. The rebellion was quelled through the intervention of international forces. He was the first president to run a \\\"front porch\\\" campaign-- a campaign limited in travel. After the Spanish-American War, the United States received the Philippines, Guam and Puerto Rico from Spain. Cuba became free but was not a United States territory. He was the third president to be assassinated (shot by Leon Czolgosz). As he was dying, he asked his attendants to be careful of the way they told his wife.
Theodore Roosevelt
27th president (1901-1909). After McKinley, before Taft. Party: Republican. The Square Deal: Three Cs: control of corporations, consumer protection, and conservation of natural resources. He wasn\\\'t completely opposed to big business, just wanted what was best for the country- dissolved many \\\"bad\\\" trusts (thought there were some good and bad ones). Assumed office following the assassination of McKinley. Panama Canal In 1901, the United States received the right to construct, operate and police the canal. Russo-Japanese WarPresident Roosevelt was helped mediate peace between Russia and Japan over their dispute of possession of Manchuria and Korea. Roosevelt received the Noble Peace Prize for his efforts. Panic of 1907Several banks and railroads collapsed with the failure of the Knickerbocker Trust Company of New York. To halt further financial decline, President Roosevelt assured U.S. Steelthat the government would not direct antitrust action against its acquisition of the Tennessee Coal and Iron Company. Oklahoma was admitted to the Union in 1907. He was the first president to win the Nobel Peace Prize; he was awarded it for the Russo-Japanese Treaty. In 1903 a stuffed toy bear was given to him which led to the naming of \\\"teddy\\\" bears. He led the Rough Riders (in Cuba in the Spanish-American War), which were comprised of football players, eastern polo players and cowboys. Named many state parks (Forest Reserve Act-1891). Bear story- wouldn\\\'t shoot the old bear, but really he just had someone else do it for him since it was beneath him.
William Howard Taft
27th president (1909-1913). After T. Roosevelt, before Wilson. Party: Republican. States Admitted to the Union, 1912 New Mexico and Arizona were both admitted to the Union under President Taft’s term. 16th Amendment, 1913 The sixteenth amendment, ratified during President Taft’s term, allowed the government to \\\"lay and collect taxes on incomes.\\\" he Webb-Kenyon Interstate Liquor Shipments Act, 1913 This act barred the interstate transportation of liquor into states where liquor was banned. Although Taft was the most portly president, he was considered a good dancer, a good tennis player and an average golfer. He was known for his affable, malleable nature.
Woodrow Wilson
28th president (1913-1921). After Taft, before Harding. Party: Democratic. World War I, 1914-1918 This 5-year war unified the Allied Powers against the Central Powers. President Wilson was critical of U.S. involvement at the war’s outset. Campained second time on \\\"He kept us out of war,\\\" even though he was planning on getting involved as soon as he was elected. Prohibition, 1919 The Eighteenth Amendment placed a ban on all alcoholic beverages. Women\\\'s suffrage, 1920 The Nineteenth Amendment provided women the right to vote. Election of Senators by the People, 1913 The Seventeenth Amendment granted citizens the right to elect their senators; the senators had previously been chosen by state legislatures. Federal Trade Commission, 1914 This commission was originally created to \\\"kill monopoly in the seed,\\\" according to President Wilson and assist those smaller businesses unable tofinancially compete with larger companies. Also formed the Federal Reserve. He was the second president to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. He was given the prize for his commitment to world peace and his attempt to create the League of Nations.
Warren G. Harding
29th president (1921-1923). After Wilson, before Coolidge. Party: Republican. VP: Calvin Coolidge. Teapot Dome & Other Scandals, 1921-23 A number of scandals occurred during Harding’s presidency including Harding’s Secretary of Interior Albert Fall selling the nation’s oil reserves at Wyoming’s Teapot Dome for personal gain. League of Nations, 1921 President Harding refused U.S. admittance to the League of Nations. He was considered personally popular but allowed his cabinet members to take over his presidency. He campaigned on the slogan, \\\"Return to Normalcy.\\\"
Calvin Coolidge
30th president (1923-1929). After Harding, before Hoover. Party: Republican. Assumed office following Harding\\\'s death. Immigration Act, 1924 This law excluded the immigration of Japanese citizens to the U.S. and favored the immigration of northern Europeans over other nationalities. Commercial Aviation The Air Commerce Act placed civil aviation under the commerce department and approved the first two commercial air routes---Transcontinental Airway and Southwestern Airway. Kellogg-Briand Pact Under this act, fifteen different countries agreed to renounce war as a means of settling international dispute. Eventually, forty-seven additional nations agreed to the pact,which is also known as the Pact of Paris, or the Pact of Peace. During his term, Charles Lindbergh made his famous flight. While he was in office, the Ku Klux Klan exceeded 4 million members. Very quiet: \\\"You lose.\\\" -- Calvin Coolidge, responding to a woman who claimed that she could make him say more than two words. A strong supporter of business, he encouraged speculation that led to a stock market boom in the 1920s, followed by economic collapse.
Herbert Hoover
31st president (1929-1933). After Coolidge, before FDR. Party: Republican. During his term as President, Adolph Hitler came into power. He was president during the 1929 Stock Market Crash. Hoover started out as an orphan and eventually became a self-made millionaire. His economic policy, which worked well during WWI, was based on the theory that giving directly to the poor wouldn\\\'t do much, but giving to the rich would make them spend more and therefore help the poor, but this doesn\\\'t work out. He finally saw the need for some federal programs so directed the construction of the Hoover Dam. Made a mistake with the \\\"Bonus Army\\\"- ordered troops on it (MacArthur was the only one who would do it) and blamed the violence on the rioters- got a lot of bad press for this. Hoover wasn\\\'t trusted by Americans and was unfairly blamed for the Great Depression.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
32nd president (1933-1945) (elected 4 times). After Hoover, before Truman. Party: Democratic. During his term, social security tax was passed. Prohibition was repealed during his administration. WWII began (1939) during his term, we joined in 1941, and he died two weeks before Germany finally surrendered in World War II. Lend-Lease was implemented by FDR. At age 39, he was stricken with infantile paralysis. He appointed the first woman to a cabinet position---Frances Perkins. She became the Secretary of Labor. First 100 days in office- did more than many presidents during their entire terms. His plan was the New Deal and philosophy was based on the 3 Rs (Relief, Recovery, and Reform). He established many federal programs, etc. to aid in ending the Depression and preventing future ones(FDIC, Bank Holidays, Civilian Conservation Corps, Federal Emergency Relief Act, The Homeowners\\\' Loan Corporation, the Agricultural Adjustment Act, the Civil Works Association, the Works Progress Adinistration, the National Recovery Administration, Federal Securities Act, Security and Exchange Commission, the Public Utility Holding Company Act, the Federal Housing Administration, and Social Security). He was known as the \\\"Great Communicator\\\"- \\\"Fireside Chats.\\\" He put the country into a lot of debt but succeeded in alleviating the Depression. Many of his programs were unconstitutional and Congress wouldn\\\'t pass them, so FDR tried \\\"court packing\\\" to make the courts more liberal, but he failed. With his election, the modern liberal Democratic Party was born.
Harry S. Truman
33rd president (1945-1953). After FDR, before Eisenhower. Party: Democratic. He assumed office when FDR died. Fair Deal: Building upon the New Deal legacy of reform, Truman advocated full employment legislation, an increase in the minimum wage, economic assistance for farmers, extension of Social Security, enactment of antidiscrimination employment practices based upon the wartime Fair Employment Practices Committee, and more. He made the decision to drop the atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki (August 1946), which led to the end of World War II. G.I. Bill (Servicemen\\\'s Readjustment Act)- meant to get rid of women in the workplace and give men back their jobs. By the late 40s, the economy began doing very well (through the 60s). Suburbs begin to be very popular (\\\"white flight\\\" and Levittown). Baby Boom (9 months after war ends). Truman was the last president without a college education. He was very stubborn and took the job seriously. The UN was formed in 1945. The Cold War began- Berlin airlift (1949) (brinksmanship). Truman followed Containment Policy (George Kennan). Truman Doctrine (1947)- any country under threat of Communism (Greece and Turkey) would be aided by U.S. Marshall Plan (Truman and Marshall)- We would give money to European countries to help them rebuild. The Dept. of Defense, Secretary of Defense, CIA, and NSA were formed. In 1948, NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) was formed and we joined- meant to fight Communism. (USSR formed the Warsaw Pact in response). Red Scares increase (McCarthy and HUAC). Rosenberg Trials. After his election in 1948, fomed Point Four- calling for support of poor, saying it will keep them from becoming Communist. Korean War: 1950-1953 (MacArthur).
Dwight D. Eisenhower
34th president (1953-1961). After Truman, before JFK. Party: Republican. VP: Nixon (almost lost his spot and credibility during election b/c it was found that he was receiving a lot of money, he fixed it with the Checkers speech). He was responsible for the creation of NASA. To enforce integration, he ordered the National Guard to escort students into the Little Rock High School in Little Rock, Arkansas. \\\"The United States never lost a soldier or a foot of ground in my administration. We kept the peace. People ask how it happened - by God, it didn\\\'t just happen, I\\\'ll tell you that.\\\" (however, he had been very involved in the army for many years.) Facilitated peace in Korea by threatening use of nuclear weapons. He was a great commander and wanted to make everyone happy, but wasn\\\'t much of a leader (Macarthy got out of hand). 1955-Rosa Parks. Unlike Truman, he did little to support black equality in the army, etc. Used dynamic conservatism: liberal with what people can do, conservative with money- he decreased government spending by decreasing military spending, gave over control of certain businesses to states, curbed certain programs and handed them over to private companies. Kept many New Deal programs- famous for improving the Interstate Highway Act (he basically built the nation\\\'s highways). Foreign policy: containment isn\\\'t enough, should push back Communism and liberate those under it (Sec. of State John Foster Dulles). Ike refused to get involved in Hungary, Vietnam, or Iran. 1957- Russians launched Sputnik 1. Space Race begins- Paris Conference, 1959, Ike and Krushev meet, Krushev leaves because of spy U-2 crash.
John F. Kennedy
35th president (1961-1963). After Eisenhower, before Johnson. Party: Democratic. VP: Johnson. He was a decorated naval officer in World War II. He served exactly 1,000 days in office. He was the first president born in the 20th century and the youngest president ever elected. During his term, the Soviets built the Berlin Wall (1961). During his term, the Cuban missile crisis errupted. \\\"And so, my fellow Americans: Ask not what your country can do for you - ask what you can do for your country. . .\\\" He promised we\\\'d be on the moon by the end of the decade- it was the last frontier for us to beat Russia. Military policy: Flexible Response (Robert McNamara)- don\\\'t have a set policy or let Russia know anything, this way they can\\\'t figure out how to go around it. JFK started sending troops to South Vietnam to teach the Vietnamese how to fight, but more and more Americans were sent as they were killed off. JFK supported civil rights (SNCC, James Meredith at U. of Mississippi) but didn\\\'t support the Freedom Riders since he couldn\\\'t protect them. Spring, 1963- MLK started his demonstrations at Birmingham (JFK supported him- said it\\\'s a moral issue). JFK was killed in November, 1963, allegedly by Lee Harvey Oswald (a lot of controversy)- Jack Ruby shot him during his perp walk, then shot himself (seemed to be a conspiracy). Peace Corp.
Lyndon B. Johnson
36th president (1963-1969). After JFK (assumed office following his assassination), before Nixon. Party: Democratic. While he was in the White House, the Civil Rights Act, the Voting Rights Act and Medicare were signed into law. His idol was FDR. His administration was known as \\\"The Great Society,\\\" despite nation-wide anti-war protests. The Great Society: he couldn\\\'t do as much as he wanted since a lot of its money had to be used for Vietnam; however, the Dems. won a lot in 1964 and he got a lot passed- HUD, Department of Transportation, Medicare and Medicaid (biggest successes), Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965, Project Headstart, 24th Ammendment (banned poll taxes and discriminating at polls). In 1965, violent black protest began (\\\"black power\\\")- LBJ felt offended since he had tried hard for civil rights but blacks didn\\\'t seem to care- he didn\\\'t understand that they had been waiting for 100 years. During his term, Martin Luther King and Robert F. Kennedy were assassinated. He nominated Thurgood Marshall to the Supreme Court. The Vietnam War escalated during his administration (draft began, lots of protest- Senator William Fullbright). For war: war hawks, against: doves. LBJ had the FBI and CIA begin making files on demonstrators. LBJ didn\\\'t like that so many Americans were dying, but didn\\\'t want to lose- 1968, he announced no more troops would be sent in and he wouldn\\\'t be running again that year.
Richard M. Nixon
37th president (1969-1974). After Johnson, before Ford. Party: Republican. Barely won the election (mostly because ppl were against LBJ an Vietnam; George Wallace (super-racist and pro-war) got enough votes so that Nixon didn\\\'t even have a majority of the vote). Vietnamization (Nixon Doctrine)- Nixon\\\'s plan to slowly withdraw troops from Vietnam and train South Vietnamese to defend themselves. The American economy went down during the 70s, mainly due to the influx of unskilled workers (women), the mechanics of other countries (Japan) exceeding our own, a shortage of oil in the U.S., the cost of Vietnam, and that the backing by gold ended forever. 1970- Nixon bombed Cambodia then sent troops there when North Vietnamese crossed its border- this upset many Americans (shooting at Kent State). 1971- Senate repealed the Tonkin Gulf Resolution. Pentagon Papers (Daniel Ellsberg)- exposed lies that JFK and LBJ had told about Vietnam and lessened the country\\\'s trust in the government. 1972-Nixon first went to China and strengthened our relationship with it, then went to Russia and pushed that Russia and China weren\\\'t as linked as they thought; we set up a trade agreement with Russia and (this paved the way for the SALT Act (1972)- Strategic Arms Limitation Talks- we both started reducing our numbers of missiles for the first time). He is the first president to have visited all fifty states. Nixon was liberal for a Republican (expanded Medicare and Medicaid, raised Social Security, sponsored the Philadelphia Plan- unions much have a timetable for becomin integrated in order to get federal contracts; changed affirmative action to representing a group rather than individuals- created the EPA (a result of Rachel Carson\\\'s Silent Spring), created OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration- good working conditions), Clean Air Act of 1970, Endangered Species Act of 1973. Nixon began carpetbombing Vietnam since Russia and China had agreed not to get involved. January, 1973, there was a ceasefire and we left, the Vietcong took over the entire country (we lost). Watergate: 5 men working for Republican committee broke into the Democratic committee at the Watergate Hotel and bugged it- Woodward and Bernstein (Washington Post) revealed the scandal. It was found that Nixon always recorded his conversations, but he denied it and wouldn\\\'t hand over the tapes. Saturday Night Massacre- Nixon went through two people before finding one who will fire his investigator, Archibard Cox- this looked horrible. July, 1974- House approves article for impeachment for obstructing inestigation- Nixon handed over the tapes, it was found he had a horrible mouth. Within 3 days, he resigned, Gerald Ford took over and pardoned him.
Gerald R. Ford
38th president (1974-1977). After Nixon (when he resigned), before Carter. Party: Republican. He is the only president not to have been elected to either the presidency or the vice presidency. He issued Richard Nixon a presidential pardon in 1974. He gave amnesty to Vietnam War resisters. He presided over the evacuation of Americans from Vietnam. He survived two assassination attempts. He wasn\\\'t very popular and lost his election against Carter in 1976.
Jimmy Carter
39th president (1977-1981). After Ford, before Reagan. Party: Democratic. He had some trouble winning his election, even though Nixon was very unpopular. He was very nice and compassionate- dedicated himself to Habitat for Humanity following presidency. He was the first president to expose the violence in Africa and try to help. His big success: Camp David Accords, 1978- got Israel to agree to withdraw form territory from war with Egypt, Egypt agreed to respect Israel\\\'s land. He made many mistakes/many bad things happened during his presidency: Many countries were falling to Communism, he signed the Panama Canal treaties (agreed to give up control of the Panamal Canal by 2000- this happened), he believed in UFOs and wanted to be taken to Area 51 to see them- everyone thought he was crazy, his brother was a drunk and got in trouble with the law, he sometimes let things slip- accidentally mentioned a secret agreement with Russia to not touch Cuba, our economy was going down because of our dependence on foreign oil, there was almost a nuclear meldown at 3 Mile Island, by 1979, the Shah in Iran was overthrown by the Ayatollah and Iran cut us off from its oil- Carter responds badly and yelled at Americans on TV for being wasteful and fired 4 cabinet members, he failed to rescue the 50 Americans taken hostage in Iran in 1979 by militants who wanted us to send the Shah back to thay could put him on trial and execute him (our plane crashed in the desert)- the story of the prisoners was on American TV every night from 444 days. He presided over the creation of the Department of Energy. He was the first president since 1932 to lose re-election.
Ronald Reagan
40th president (1981-1989). After Carter, before George Bush. Party: Republican. He made a deal with Iran before his election to get back the hostages by selling them weapons, but doesn\\\'t have them released until right when he\\\'s inaugurated. He was the oldest man elected president. He was the first Hollywood actor to be elected president. He appointed the first woman to the supreme court, Supreme Court Justice Sandra Day O\\\'Connor. He sent United States soldiers into Grenada and commanded soldiers into (for peacekeeping between it and Israel) and out of Lebanon (after some of our marines were killed by a suicide bomber- Reagan was popular and noone was blamed). Iran Contra Scandal- Reagan couldn\\\'t keep the money from selling weapons to Iran so gave it to Freedom Riders going to Latin America, he was found out and Oliver North took the blame but noone believed him and Reagan had to go on the stand and said he wasn\\\'t sure if he\\\'d ever read the documents from the transactions. He dedicated the Vietnam Memorial. He used to be a Democrat but became a conservative Republican. His plan: the New Right. He brought the Republican Party back to power, though not in the way he wanted. His power base: conservative Christians. Race and affirmative action were big issues- he was against affirmative action. He believed the federal government should be somewhat uninvolved and was neoconservative- if the wealthy are wealthy, everyone benefits. He assembled a very good cabinet- except Secretary of the Interior, James Watt, (in charge of the parks, environment, EPA but tried to get around it for a profit), who made a horribly offensive joke in front of the press and had to resign. He wanted to decrease the size and budget of the government by cutting programs, mostly social programs, but spent a lot on military (developed Star Wars- STI- developing satellites to shoot Russia from- he broke Russia\\\'s power with this by getting it to spend more and more money to keep up). Supplied Side Economics: reduced taxes to make upper and middle classes spend more to boost the economy- he was wrong and accumulated $2 trillion of debt. He didn\\\'t send troops unless it was necessary.
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