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Biceps Brachii
Origin:
Long head:
supraglenoid tubercle above the superior lip of the glenoid fossa.
Short head: coracoid process of the scapula and upper lip of the glenoid fossa in conjunction with the proximal attachment of the coracabrochialis.

Insertion:
Tuberosity of the radius and bicipital aponeurosis (lacertus fibrosis).

Action:
Flexion of the elbow. Supination of the forearm. Weak flexion of the shoulder joint. Weak abduction of the shoulder joint when the shoulder joint is in external rotation.

Innervation: Musculocutaneous nerve (C5, C6).
Biceps Brachii O & I
Biceps Brachii Muscle
Brachialis
Origin:
Distal half of the anterior shaft of the humerus.

Insertion:
Coronoid process of the ulna.

Action:
True flexion of the elbow.

Innervation: Musculocutaneous nerve and sometimes branches from radial and median nerves (C5, C6).
Brachialis O & I
Brachialis Muscle
Brachioradialis
Origin:
Distal two-thirds of the lateral condyloid (supracondylar) ridge of the humerus.
Insertion:
Lateral surface of the distal end of the radius at the styloid process.

Action:
Flexion of the elbow. Pronation from supinated position to neutral. Supination from pronated position to neutral.
Innervation:
Radial nerve (C5, C6).
Brachioradialis O & I
Brachioradialis Muscle
Triceps Brachii
Origin:
Long head: Infraglenoid tubercle below inferior lip of glenoid fossa of the scapula.
Lateral head: Upper half of the posterior surface of the humerus.
Medial head:
Distal two-thirds of the posterior surface of the humerus.

Insertion:
Olecranon process of the ulna.

Action:
All heads: extension of the elbow.
Long head: extension, adduction, and horizontal abduction of the shoulder joint.

Innervation:
Radial nerve (C7, C8).
Triceps Brachii Long Head O & I
Triceps Brachii Long Head Muscle
Triceps Brachii Lateral Head O & I
Triceps Brachii Lateral Head Muscle
Triceps Brachii Medial Head O & I
Triceps Brachii Medial Head Muscle
Anconeus
Origin:
Posterior surface of the lateral condyle of the humerus.

Insertion:
Posterior surface of the lateral olecranon process and proximal one-fourth of the ulna.

Action:
Extension of the elbow.

Innervation:
Radial nerve (C7, C8).
Anconeus O & I
Anconeus Muscle
Pronator Teres
Origin:
Distal part of the medial condyloid ridge of the humerus and medial side of the proximal ulna.

Insertion:
Middle third of the lateral surface of the radius.

Action:
Pronation of the forearm. Weak flexion of the elbow.
Innervation:
Median nerve (C6, C7).
Pronator Teres O & I
Pronator Teres Muscle
Pronator Quadratus
Origin:
Distal fourth of the anterior side of the ulna.

Insertion:
Distal fourth of the anterior side of the radius.

Action:
Pronation of the forearm.

Innervation:
Median nerve (palmar interosseous branch) (C6, C7).
Pronator Quadratus Muscle
Supinator
Origin: Lateral epicondyle of the humerus and neighboring poster part of the ulna. Insertion: Lateral surface of the proximal radius just below the head. Action: Supination of the forearm. Innervation: Radial nerve (C6).
Supinator Muscle
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