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RELICS OF FEUDIALISM
Obligations of peasants to noble landlords that survived into the modern era
ESTATES
One of three classes onto which French society was divided before the revolution; the clergy(1st estate),the nobles(2nd estate), townspeople(3rd estate)
BOURGEOISIE
The middle class including merchants, industrialists,and professional people.
SANS-COULOTTES FACTION
"WITHOUT BREECHES" Members of the Paris Commune who considered themselves ordinary patriots.
COUPD'ETAT
A sudden overthrow of the government.
CONSULATE
G'vt established in France after the overthrow of the Directory in 1799, w/ Napoleon bas first consul in control of entire g'vt.
NATIONALISM
The unique cultural identity of a people based on common language, religion, and national symbols.
ABOLITIONISM
A movement to end slavery.
PRINCIPLE OF LEGITIMACY
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UNIVERSAL MALE SUFFRAGE
The right of all males to vote.
PUDDLING
The process of which coke derived from coal is used to burn away impurities in crude iron to produce high quality iron.
ORGANIC EVOLUTION
Principle of Darwin that every plant or animal has evolved, or changed, over a long period of time, from earlier simple forms of life to more complex forms.
CONSERVATISM
A political philosophy based on tradition and social stability, that favors obedience to political authority and organized religion.
COTTAGE INDUSTRY
A method of production which tasks are done by individuals in their rural homes.
ROMANTICISM
An intellecual movement that emerged at the end of the 18th century in reaction to the ideas of Enlightment; it stressed feelings, emotions, and imagination as a source of knowing.
REVISIONISTS
A Marxist who rejected the revolutionary approach, believing instead in evolution by democratic means to achieve the goal of socialism.
PROLETARIAT
The working class.
FEMINISM
The movement for WOMEN'S RIGHTS.
MINISTERIAL RESPONSIBILITY
The idea that the Prime Minister is responsible for the popularly elected executive body and not the executive officer.
DUMA
The Russian legislative  assembly.
PSYCHOANALYSIS
A method by which a therapist and patient probe deeply into the patient's memory. by making the patient's mind aware of repressed thoughts, then healing can take place.
MODERNISM
A movement in which writers and artists b/w 1879 and 1914 rebelled against the traditional literacy and artistic styles that had dominated European cultural life since the Renaissance.
POGROMS
Organized persecution or massacre of a minority group, especially JEWS.
DICTATORSHIP
A form of g'vt in which a person or small group has absolute power.
LITERACY
The ability to read.
IMPERIALISM
The extension of a nation's power over other lands.
PROTECTORATE
A political unit that depends on another g'vt for its protection.
INDIRECT RULE
Colonial g'vt in which local rulers are allowed to maintain their positions of authority and status.
DIRECT RULE
Colonial g'vt in which local elites are removed from power and replaced by a new set of officials brought from the MOTHER country.
ANNEXED
Incorporate territory into an existing political unit, such as a city or a country.
INDIGENOUS
Native to region.
SEPOYS
An Indian soldier hired by the British East India Company to protect the company's interest in the region.
VICEROYS
A governor who ruled as a representative of a monarch.
MONCROE DOCTRINE
The US policy guaranteeing the independence of Latin America nations and warning against European intervention in the Americas, made by President James Monroe in 1823.
CREOLE
A person of European descent born in the Americas and living there permanently.
PREFECTURES
In the Japanese Meiji Restoration, a territory governed by its former daimyo lord.
EXTRATERRITORITALITY
Living ion a section of a country set aside for foreigners but not subject to host country's laws.
SPHERE OF INFLUENCE
An area in which a foreign power has been granted rights and mining privileges.
CONCESSIONS
POLITICAL COMPROMISE.
SELF-STRENGTHENING
A policy promoted towards the end of the Quin Dynasty under which China would adopt Western technology while keeping its Confucian values and institutions.
INDEMNITY
Payment for damages.
PROVINCIAL
Local; of or relating to province.
COMMODITIES
A marketable product.
CONSCRIPTION
Military draft.
MOBILIZATION
The process of assembling troops and supplies and making them ready for war.
TRENCH WAREFARE
Fighting from ditches protected from barbed wire, as in WWI.
WAR OF ATTRITION
A war based on wearing the other side down by constant attacks and heavy losses, such as WWI.
TOTAL WAR
A war that involves complete mobilization of resources and people, affecting the lives of all citizens in the warring countries, even those remote from the battlefield.
PLANNED ECONIMICS
An economic system directed by government agencies.
SOVIETS
A Russian council composed of representatives from the workers and soldiers.
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