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Organization of living things organized
Smallest Chemical Units


Group of atoms working together

Group of molecules

Group of organelles workin together

are a group of similar cells working together

Are a group of different tissues working together.

Organ Systems
Group of organs working together

Is an individual
Organization of Muscle from chemical level to organ level.
Protein Molecules (Chemical Level)

Protein Filaments (Organelle Level)

Muscle Cells (Cellular Level)

Cardiac Muscle Tissue (Tissue Level)

Heart (organ level)
How many organ systems?


They all work together

Many organs work in more than one organ system
What is Homeostasis
The maintenance of nearly constant internal conditions
What is a Cell Membrane
A barrier that seperates living cells from the environment

Inside the cell

Outside the cell.
What does the intracellular compartment contain

It contains all essential material for survival of the cell.
Cell is the smallest living thing that can take care of itself
Amy has a nice asshole
What does the Cell need to survive and how does it get it?
The cell needs

O2 and Nutrients

It must get rid of CO2 and waste products
Where are O2 and nutrients in a cell.

Where is CO2 and waste?
O2 and nutrients in a cell are extra cellular

CO2 and waste are intracellular
How does the exchange occur?
Substances must pass through the cell membrane in order to enter or leave.

How do  exchanges occur between  multicellular organisms and Unicellular organisms
For multi cellular exchange occurs with surrounding environment. Maybe inside the organism or the external environment.

For unicellular organisms, interaction occurs directly with external environment.
How do cells within an organism exchange substances with the external environment?
Transport Systems

Circulatory System
Gas Exchange System
Digetstive System
Why is homeostasis important?
Living cells depend on various chemical reactions
What assists the reactions

Enzymes assist these reactions

They speed the up and are not used up.
What do enzymes require to function properly?
They require specific conditions in order to function.

Temp and pH are two key factors in efficient enzyme function.
How are Temp and pH regulated?
Automatic response in a cell, tissue or organ.

Extrinsic regulation:
Responses controlled by nervous and endocrine systems.
What is the difference between Homeotherms/Endotherms


Poikilotherms or Ectotherms
H/E: Body temp generated and maintained internally.

P/E: Cannot regulate body temperature (absorbed from environment)
Which type of feedback is most common in controlling homeostasis
Negative Feedback
What maintains normal limits
Receives the stimulus

Control Center
Processes the signal and sends instructions

Carries out instructions
Controlling Body Temp

Blood vessels at skin surface constrict



Thyroid Hormone Release

Heat Loss

Blood Vessels

Positive Feedback


Negative Feedback
PF: Response of the effector reinforces the stimulus

NF: Response of effector negates the stimulus
Homeostasis is a state of equilibrium.

Physiological systems work to restore balance

Failure to function within a normal range results in disease.
Systems respond to eternal and internal changes to function within a normal range (body temp, fluid balance)
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