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CNS
Central Nervous System which consist of the brain, teh spinal cord, and the peripheal
PNS
Peripheal nervous system which includes all nervous tissue outside the CNS
Nervous System Consist of 2 Subdivisions
Central & Peripheal
CLusters of the neuron cell bodies located outside the CNS are called
Ganglia
Which functional divisions of the nervous system includes the SNS and ANS
Motor
In the PNS, components of the afferent division include
Sensory Neurons
Sensory Afferent Division
Somatic and Visceral Sensory Nerve Fibers  Conduct impulses from the receptors
Motor Efferent Division
Motor Nerve Fibers conduct impulses from the CNS effectors (muscle and glands)
ANS
Autonomic Nervous System
ANS divided into 2 subdivisions
Sympathetic and Parasympathetic
Sympathetic
Arises in Spinal Cord Flight of Fight Excited  increase heartrate increased blood pressure
Parasympathetic
Arises in Brain feed or  breed relaxed increased digestion urination and reproduction
Brachial Plexuses
Formed by anterior rami of c5 to t1 innervates pectoral girdle and entire upper limbs
Sensory Nervous System
Transmits impulses from the PNS to the CNS includes pain touch pressure and temp
Neural Crest
as neural tube forms some of ectodermal cells from the tube migrate to f form several layers of cells
Neural Tube
the neural folds approach eachother and fuse thus converting the neural plate
Mulitipolar
usually have several dendrites and one axon in brain and spinal cord
bipolar
one main dendrite and one axon in retina of ete in inner ear and olafactory
dendrite
afferent input or sensory short input from another axon at a synapsis of sensory receptor
axon
efferent output or motor long makes the nerve fiber converted with axolemma
interneurons
multipolar recieves informationfrom many other interneurons to cause depolarizationod OF THE AXON SENDS info to an effector organ
motor neurons
multipolar many dendrites in the CNS brain communicated with different areas of itself recieves many inputs has many outputs
sensory neurons
unipolar one process that is the sourse for both the sensory and motor end
special sensory neurons
found only in the special sensory organs eye nose ear
Neuroglial Cells Glial Types
Astrocyte, Microglial, Ependymal, Oligodendrocyte
Astrocyte
Star shaped cells attached to neurons capillaries and pia mater in CNS blood brain barrier
Microglial
Small star shaped reside in the CNS eat any debris that makes it past the blood brain barrier
Ependymal
Cuboidal to columnar line the ventricles ciliated to move CSF
Oigodendrocytes
sends processesthat form thin sheets of the cell forms the white matter of the CNS
PNS Support Cells (2)
Satellite & Schwann
Satellite Cells
surround the neuron body of sensory neurons in ganglia
Schwann Cells
Make the myelin sheath for groups of axons
Somatic Senses
include tactile sensations touch pressure vibration itch and tickle
Visceral Senses
provide info about conditions within internal organs
Unipolar Neurons
dendrites and one axon that are fused together to form a continuous process that emerges from the cell body
Spatial Summation
summation of postsynaptic potentials in response to stimuli that occur at different locations in the membrane of a postsynaptic cell at the same time
Temporal Summation
summation of postsynaptic potentials in response to stimuli that occur at the same location inthe membrane of the postsynaptic cell but at different times
Acetycholine
Best studied neurotransmitter released by many PNS neurons and some CNS neurons Excitatory
Epinephrine
Serve as hormone cells of the adrenal  medulla the inner portion of the adrenal gland release them into blood excitatoy and inhibitatory
GABA
found only in CNS controls stimulation alcohol increases effect
Seratonin
many side effects more in females related to histamine the drug that causes inflammation mainly inhibitory
Dopamine
more in males feel good hormone excitatory and inhibitory
presynaptic neuron
a neuron sending info to another
postsynaptic neuron
a neuron receiving infro from another
cervical plexuses
cervical plexuses formed by the roots of the first four cervical nerves supplies the skin and muscles of the head neck and superior part of the shulders and chest
lumbar plexuses
minimal intermingling  of fibers in the lumbar plexuses on either side of the first four lumbar vertebrae
Olafactory nerve
Smell I
Optic Nerve
Sight II
Oculomotor Nerve
Eye Movements III Somatic
Trochlear Nerve
Pulls Eye Down IV Somatic
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