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When did World War I begin?
28 July 1914
When did World War I end?
11 November 1918
How many combatants were killed during World War I?
Over 9 million
What was the trigger of World War I?
The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary in Sarajevo on 28 June 1914
When and how did the first conflict of World War I open?
After the Serbs did not comply with 2 of 10 requirements of the ultimatem offered by Austria-Hungary, the Austro-Hungarian Empire invaded Serbia, followed by the German invasion of Belgium, Luxembourg, and France.
What 4 major powers had been politically and militarily defeated after the Great War?
  • German Empire
  • Russian Empire
  • Austro-Hungarian Empire
  • Ottoman Empire
What were 7 terms used to describe World War I?
  • World War I
  • First World War
  • The Great War
  • The World War
  • The War in Europe
  • La Guerre du Droit
  • La Guerre Pour la Civilisation
What was the League of Three Emperors?
Agreement between the monarchs of Austri-Hungary, Russia, and Germany that failed because Autria-Hungary and Russi could not agree over Balkan policy.
What was the dual Alliance?
The alliance formed in 1879 between Germany and Austria-Hungary after the failure of Dreikaiserbund.
When did the Dual Alliance expand to include Italy?
1882
Explain the significance of the Reinsurance Treaty.
When Wilhelm II did not renew this agreement with Russia in 1890, the French and Russians signed an agreement in 1892.
In 1870, how had Chancellor Bismark kept the peace between Germany and other European nations?
A carefully planned network of treaties that began to unfold when Wilhelm II ascended to the throne.
Why was the Franco-Russian alliance formed?
To counteract the Triple Alliance.
What was the Entente Cordial?
Alliance with France and the United Kingdom sealed in 1904.
What was the Anglo-Russian Convention?
Agreement between Russia and England signed in 1907.
What was the Triple Entente?
The system of interlocking bilateral agreements that bonded Russia, France, and the UK, including the Entente Cordial (1904) and the Anglo-Russian Convention (1907).
What was the Kaiserliche Marine?
The German Imperial Navy that Wilhelm II devoted significant resources to building up since the mid 1890-s, established by Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz to countaract the supremacy of Britain's Navy.
Who was Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz?
He established the German Kaiserliche Marine.
What was the HMS Dreadnought?
Capital ship launched by the British Empire in 1906, marking a significant advantage over the German Navy.
What was Austria-Hungary's role in the Bosnian crisis of 1908-1909?
The Empire preciptated the crisis by annexing the former Ottoman territory of Bosnia and Herzogivina (which it had occupied since 1878).
Explain the phrase, "Powder Keg of Europe".
Refers to the political strife in the Balkans during the years leading up to the Great War.
When was the First Balkan War fought?
1912-1913
What was the result of the First Balkan War?
The Treaty of London shrank the Ottoman Empire by creating Albania and enlarging the territories of other Balkan holdings, including Bulgaria, Serbia, Montenegro, and Greece.
When did Bulgaria first attack Serbia and Greece?
16 June 1913
What was the consequence of the attack on 16 June 1913 of Serbia and Greece?
Bulgaria lost most of Macedonia and Souther Dobruja.
When did the second Balkan war start?
16 June 1913
How long was the second Balkan war?
33 days
When was Franz Ferdinand assassinated?
28 June 1914
Who assassinated Franz Ferdinand and why?
Gavrilo Princip was a Bosnian Serb and member of Young Bosnia.
Where was Franz Ferdinand assassinated?
Sarajevo
What was the July Ultimatum?
Austria-Hungary made 10 impossible demands on Serbia, who only met 8 out of the 10 demands.
When did Austrio-Hungary declare war on Serbia?
28 July 1914
When did the United Kingdom declare war on Germany and why?
4 August 1914, as a result of Germay's illegal invasion of a neutral territory, Belgium.
When and why did the French order mobilization?
ON 1 August 1914, agry about the conquest of Alsace-Lorraine.
What was the major problem with the strategy of the Central Powers?
Miscommunication
What was the Septemberprogramm?
Plan for Germany's war aims and conditions they wanted to force on the Allies outlined by German Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg on 9 September 1914.
What was the Battle of Cer?
Battle on 12 August 1914 fought by the Serbian army against the invading Austro-Hungarians at the Drina and Sava rivers, which was the first major allied victory of the war.
What was the Schiefflen Plan?
German strategy outling the plan to quickly attack France by moving through neutral Belgiam, which resulted in internatioanl outrage.
What was the Battle of the Frontiers?
Battle on 14-24 August in which Germans were initially very successful in convergin on Paris.
What was the First Battle of Tannenberg?
Series of battles between 17 August and 2 September 1914 in which Germany defeated Russia on the Eastern front,
What was New Zealand's role in the war?
Occupied Western Samoa, then German Samoa on 30 August 1914.
Within a few months of the start of the Great War, the Alied forces had seized all German territories in the Pacific except what?
Parts of New Guinea
What were some of the technological advances that created impressive defence systems that old military tactics couldn't penetrate during the Great War?
  • Barbed wire
  • More lethal artillery
  • Machine guns
  • Poison gas
Whatwas perhaps the most-feared and best-remembered horror of the Great War?
Poison gas
What important new defensive weapon was produced by the Allies during the Great War?
Tank
What happened after the first Battle of Marne?
Entente and German forces began a series of outflanking manouevres in the Race to the Sea
What was the "Race to the Sea"?
Entente and German forces "raced" from Lorraine to Belgium's coast in a series of outflanking maneoeuvres. France / Britain were on the offensive, while Germany was defending its conquered territory.
What was Kitcheners' Wood?
Area taken by the Germans at the first Battle of Ypres on 22 April 1915, when the Germans gassed Algerian troops, opening up a 6-km hole in Allied defences.
What was significant about the first Battle of Ypres?
On 22 April 1915, the Germans used chlorine gas Algerian troops, taking Kitcheners Wood.
What happened at the second Battle of Ypres?
Canadian soldiers closed the gap at Kitcheners' Wood created during the gasing of the first Battle of Ypres.
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