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by maegan


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a branch of psych concerned with the links between biology and behavior
biological psychology
a popular ill-fated theory that claimed bumps on the skull could reveal our mental abilities and character traits
phrenology
nerve cell; the basic building of the nervous system
neuron
the bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body
dendrite
the extension of the neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages pass to other neurons or to muscles or glands
axon
a neural impulse; a brief electrical charges that travels down an axon
action potential
the level of stimulation required a trigger a neural impulse
threshold
increasing the level of stimulation above the threshold, however will not increase the neural impulse's intensity
all-or-none response
the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron
synapse
tiny gap between an axon and dendritesynaptic gap
synaptic gap
chemical messengers that transverse the synaptic gaps between neurons
neurotransmitters
1. neurotransmitter that enables muscle action, learning and memory
acetycholine
a disease when acetycholine-producing neurons deteriorate
Alzheimer's disease
2 neurotransmitter that influences movement, learning, attention and emotion
dopamine
disease when there's an excess of dopamine
schizophrenia
disease when starved of dopamine, wherein brain produces the tremors and decreased mobility
Parkinson's disease
3 neurotransmitter that affects the mood, hunger, sleep and arousal
serotonin
undersupply of serotonin
depression
antidepressant drug
Prozac
4 neurotransmitter that helps control alertness and arousal
Norepinephrine
undersupply of norepinephrine
depress mood
5 a major inhibitory neurotransmitter
GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)
undersupply of GABA
linked to seizures, tremors and insomnia
6 a major excitatory neurotransmitter; involved in memory
glutamate
oversupply of glutamate (ex. MSG monosodium glutamate)
produce migraines or seizures
drug molecules that mimic a neurotransmitter's effect or may block the reuptake
agonist
drug molecules that inhibit a neurotransmitter's release from the sending neuron
antagonist
"morphine within" - natural, opiatelike neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure
dopamine
2 divisions of nervous system
Central Nervous System (CNS) and Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
brain and spinal cord
CNS
sensory and motor neurons that connect the CNS to the rest of the body
PNS
3 types of neurons
sensory, motor and interneuron
neurons that carry incoming information from the sense receptors to the CNS
sensory neurons
neurons that carry outgoing information from the CNS to the muscles and glands
motor neurons
CNS neurons that internally communicate and intervene bet sensory inputs and motor outputs
interneuron
2 components of PNS
autonomic and somatic
the division of the PNS that controls the body's skeletal muscles
somatic nervous system
part of PNS that controls the glands and muscles of the internal organs
autonomic nervous system
arouse: dilate the pupil, accelerates the heartbeat, inhibits the digestion, stimulates glucose release, relaxes the bladder
sympathetic nervous system
calming: contracts the pupils, slows heartbeat, stimulates digestion, stimulates gallbladder, contracts bladder
parasympathetic nervous system
a simple, automatic response to a sensory stimulus, such as knee-jerk response
reflex
the body's "slow" chemical communication; interconnected with nervous system
endocrine system
chemical messengers which travels through the bloodstream and affect other tissues
hormones
a pair of endocrine glands just above the kidneys that secrete the hormones epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline)
adrenal glands
the most influential gland; regulates the growth and controls other endocrine glands
pituitary gland
the base of the brainstem; controls the heartbeat and breathing
medulla
sits above the medulla that coordinate movements
pons
sensory switchboard; it receives information from all the senses except smell and routes it to the brain regions
thalamus
a nerve network that playas an important role in controlling arousal
reticular formation
"little brain" functions include processing sensory input and coordinating movement output and balance
cerebellum
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