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Cloned from: Social Psych Exam 2



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Entity Theorists
those who believe that traits are fixed, stable things(entities) and thus people should not be expected to change
incremental theorists
those who believe that one's actions will not bring about desired outcomes, leading one to give up and quit trying
learned helplessness
belief that one's actions will not bring about desired outcomes, leading one to give up and quit trying
zeigarnik effect
a tendency to experience automatic, intrusive thoughts about a goal whbose pursuit has been interupted
planning fallacy
the tendency for plans to be overly optimistic because the planner fails to allow for unexpected problems
self-determination theory
the theory that people need to feel at least some degree of autonomy and internal motivation
panic button effect
a reduction in stress or suffering due to a belief that one has the option of escaping or controlling the situation, even if one doesn't exercise it
risk aversion
in decision making, the greater weight given to possible losses than possible gains
temporal discounting
in decision making, the greater weight given to the present over the future
certainty effect
in decision making, the greater weight given to definite outcomes than to probablilities
status quo bias
the preference to keep things the way they are rather than change
error management theory
the idea that both men and women seek to minimize the most costly type of error, but that men's and women's goals, and hence worst errors
omission bias
the tendency to take whatever course of action does not require you to do anything (also called the default option)
reactance theory
the idea that people are distressed by loss of freedom or options and seek to reclaim or reassert them
self-regulation
the self's capacity to alter its own responses; self control.
monitoring
keeping track of behaviors or responses to be regulated
TOTE
the self regulation feedback loop of Test, Operate, Test, Exit
self defeating behavior
any action by which people bring failure, suffering, or misfortune on themselves
capacity to delay gratification
the ability to make immediate sacrifices for later rewards
social cognition
a movement in social psychology that began in the 1970s that focused on thoughts about people and about social relationships
cognitive miser
a term used to describe people's reluctance to do much extra thinking.
stroop effect
in the stroop test, the finding that poeple have difficulty overridin the automatic tendency to read the word rather than name the ink color
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