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Name 8 areas of the body whose care is needed for hygiene?
Mouth & Teeth
Eyes & Ears
Vaginal / Perineal areas
List 6 factors affecting hygiene.
1.  Cultural variations
2.  Socioeconomic class
3.  Spiritual practices / religious beliefs
4.  Developmental level
5.  Health state
6.  Personal preferences
What must exist before a nurse decides that one's hygiene practices are inadequate?
A clear threat to health
Assessing hygiene practices includes determining what four things about the patient?
Name five conditions that should be asked about when obtaining a patient's nursing history concerning past or present skin problems.
What six types of patients are at high risk of oral cavities?
seriously ill
NG tubes
oral surgery
mouth breather
Give three reasons why patients may not have good oral hygiene.
1.  Lack of money or insurance
2.  Depresses
3.  Paralyzed
When obtaining a nursing history for skin problems, what questions should be asked? (3)
How long have you had this problem?
Does it bother you?  How?
What makes it better?  Worse?
When obtaining a nursing history for the oral cavity, what questions should be asked? (6)
Family history of periodontal disease?
Chemo agents causing oral lesions?
What is your normal hygiene pattern?
Deficient self-care abilities?
Poor nutrition?
On any medications?
What three structures should be considered when obtaining a nursing history for the oral cavity?
Salivary Glands
When obtaining a nursing history for eyes, ears and nose, what questions should be asked? (3)
Any special care performed?
Visual aids or prosthetics?
History of medical or surgical treatment?
When obtaining a nursing history for hair, what questions should be asked? (5)
Usual hair and scalp practices?
History of hair or scalp problems?
Hair distribution?
Texture & amount of hair?
Deficient self-care abilities, immobility, malnutrition, related treatments (chemo)?
When obtaining a nursing history for nails and feet, what questions should be asked? (3)
Normal nail and foot practices?
Type of footwear worn?
Any foot problems or treatment?
Obtaining a nursing history for nails and feet are especially important for patients with what two conditions?
Diabetes Melitis (DM)
Peripheral Vascular Disease (PVD)
When obtaining a nursing history for nails and feet, it is important to identify what two varibles?
trimming nails properly
ill-fitting shoes
Describe the process for making a physical assessment of skin.
-Use inspection and palpation to systematically assess the skin from head-to-toe
-Assess cleanliness, color, texture, temperature, turgor, moisture, sensation, vascularity, lesions (document type, color, size, distribution/grouping, location & consistency of lesions)
-Use a good source of light
-Compare bilateral parts for symmetry
-use standard terminology to report and record findings
-Identify variables known to cause skin problems
Describe the process for making a physical assessment of the oral cavity.
- Inspection of oral cavity & surrounding structures
- Unusual odors?
- Examine lips, buccal mucosa, colar & surface of gums, teeth, tongue, hard & soft palates, oropharnyx
-Dental caries (decay of teeth w/cavities)?
- Plaque?
- Periodontal disease?
- Gingivitis?
- Tartar?
- Halitosis?
- Stomatitis?
- Glossitis?
- Cheilosis?
- Dry oral mucosa?
- Oral malignancies?
Describe making a physical assessment of the eyes.
- Note position, alignment and general appearance of the eye
- Equal distribution of eyelashes?
- Lesions, redness, nodules, sweling, crusting, flaking, excessive tearing or discharge at eyes?
- Assess blink reflex and gross visual acuity
Describe making a physical assessment of the ears.
- Note position, alignment and general appearance of the ear
- buildup of canal wax, dryness, crusting or presence of foreign body?
Describe making a physical assessment of the nose.
- Note position and general appearance of the nose
- Patency of nostrils?
- Presence of tenderness, dryness, edema, bleeding, discharge or secretions?
Describe making a physical assessment of the hair.
- Texture, cleanliness, oiliness?
- Scaling, lesinos, inflammation, infection of scalp?
- Dandruff, hair loss, infestations?
- Hair transplantations?
What means absences or loss of hair?  Can be partial or complete, local or generalized.
What can cause hair loss? (9)
poor nutrition
hormonal disorders
drug toxicity
hepatic & renal failure
thyroid & hepatic disease
What does pediculosis mean?
Infestation with lice
Name the three types of lice infecstation.
Pediculus humanus capitis (hair & scalp)
Pediculus humanus corporis (body)
Pthirus pubis (pubic & axillary hair)

Lice can only be spread by direct contact.

Lice can be spread by both direct and indirect contact
What are white or light gray lice called that look like dandruff but can't be shaken off?
What is the treatment for lice infestation?
pediculocides - may require several treatments
What are three diseases transmitted by ticks?
Lyme disease
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

Transmission of disease decreases when tick is removed within 24 hours of becoming attached.
Describe physical assessment of nails.
- Intactness & cleanliness of nails
- Capillary refill
- Contour of nailbed
- Redness, swelling, bleeding, discharge, tenderness of nail base
Describe physical assessment of feet.
- Intactness & cleanliness of feet
- Swelling, lesions, inflammation , tenderness, orthopedic problems of feet
- Assess between toes
Describe physical assessment of perineal and vaginal areas
- Assess male genitalia for lesions, inflammation, excoriations, tenderness & discharge (note amt. color, odor, source)
- Assess female genitalia for color, size, lesions, masses swelling, inflammation, excoriation, tenderness, discharge
- Assess anal area for tears, nodules, distended veins, masses, polyps, unusual odors
When providing scheduled hygiene care, in the early a.m., upon awakening what should the patien be assisted to do?
- toileting
- prepare for breakfast (wash hands and face)
When providing scheduled hygiene care, what are morning self-care abilities that should be catagorized as either self-care, partial care or complete care? (9)
oral care
back massage
skin care
hair care & cosmetics
positioning for comfort
When providing scheduled hygiene care, what afternoon care (p.m. care) should the nurse offer assistance with? (3)
oral care
What two duties should the nurse perform as part of afternoon care?
Reposition for comfort
Straighten bed linens
What does p.r.n. care mean?
As Needed Care
How often should oral care be administered for some patients?
Every two hours
If the patient is diaphoretic, what will he/she require frequently?
linen and gown changes
What are the 10 purposes of bathing?
- cleansing the skin
- condition the skin
- relaxation
- promote circulation
- exercise (joint mobility, ROM)
- stimulate rate and depth of respirations
- promote comfort through muscle relaxation and skin stimulation
- providing sensory input
- imporve self-image
- strengthen nurse-patient relationship
What is the preferred method of bathing for hospitalized patients who are ambulatory and can tolerate activity?
What safety device should be checked for before allowing a patient to take a shower?
non-skid mat
What three things should be provided for a patient taking a shower?
What safety device can be offered for an ambulatory patient taking a shower?
shower chair

The nurse should allow the patient to inter and exit the show unaided.

The nurse should assist to and from show and in and out of shower as needed.
What should the water temperature be for a patient's shower?
100-115 F
What should be handy for the patient while taking a shower?
call light
When giving a bed bath, the bath blanket provides what two things?
Warmth & Privacy
What is an alternative to the traditional bed bath?
Bag bath - premoistened washcloths that require no rinsing
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