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Maslow's hierarchy of basic human needs is useful when planning and implementing nursing care as it provides a structure for:

a. Making accurate nursing diagnoses

b. Establishing priorities of care

c. Communicating concerns more concisely

d. Integrating science into nursing care
The correct response is b. Maslow's hierarchy of basic human needs is useful for establishing priorities of care.
Which of the following levels of basic human needs is most basic?

a. Physiologic

b. Safety and security

c. Love and belonging

d. Self-actualization
The correct response is a. Physiologic needs are the most basic and must be met at least minimally to sustain life
Of all the physiologic needs, which one is the most essential?

a. Food

b. Water

c. Elimination

d. Oxygen
The correct response is d. Oxygen is the most essential of all needs because all body cells require oxygen for survival
Careful handwashing and using sterile techniques are ways in which nurses meet which basic human need?

a. Physiologic

b. Safety and security

c. Self-esteem

d. Love and belonging
The correct response is b. By carrying out careful handwashing and using sterile technique, nurses provide safety from infection.
Of the following statements, which one is true of self-actualization?

a. Humans are born with fully developed self-actualization.

b. Self-actualization needs are met by having confidence and independence.

c. The self-actualization process continues throughout life.

d. Loneliness and isolation occur when self-actualization needs are unmet
The correct response is c. Self-actualization, or reaching one's full potential, is a process that continues through life
What is the best broad definition of a family?

a. A father, a mother, and children

b. Members are biologically related

c. Includes aunts, uncles, and cousins

d. A group of people who live together
The correct response is d. Although all the responses may be true, the best definition is a group of people who live together
Where do individuals learn their health beliefs and values?

a. In the family

b. In school

c. From school nurses

d. From peers
The correct response is a. Healthcare activities, health beliefs, and health values are learned within one's family
John and Mary, each parents of one child, are both divorced. When they marry, the family structure that is formed will be:

a. Nuclear family

b. Extended family

c. Blended family

d. Cohabiting family
The correct response is c. A blended family is formed when parents bring unrelated children from previous relationships together to form a new family.
One of the developmental tasks of the older adult family is to:

a. Maintain a supportive home base

b. Prepare for retirement

c. Cope with loss of energy and privacy

d. Adjust to loss of spouse
The correct response is d. A developmental task of the older adult family is adjusting to the loss of a spouse
One element of a healthy community is that it:

a. Meets all the needs of its inhabitants

b. Offers access to healthcare services

c. Has mixed residential and industrial areas

d. Is little concerned with air and water quality
The correct response is b. A healthy community offers access to healthcare services to treat illness and to promote health.
Of the following statements, which is most true of health and illness?

a. Health and illness are the same for all people.

b. Health and illness are individually defined by each person.

c. People with acute illnesses are actually healthy.

d. People with chronic illnesses have poor health beliefs
The correct response is b. Each person defines health and illness individually, based on a number of factors
Of the following terms, which would be defined as a disease?

a. Excess fluid volume

b. Risk for infection

c. Rheumatoid arthritis

d. Altered body image
The correct response is c. Rheumatoid arthritis is a disease; the other responses are nursing diagnoses labeling an actual or potential response to a disease
Your neighbor, Alan, asks you to come over because he has a high temperature, feels “awful,” and did not go to work. What stage of illness behavior is Alan exhibiting?

a. Experiencing symptoms

b. Assuming the sick role

c. Assuming a dependent role

d. Achieving recovery and rehabilitation
The correct response is b. When people assume the sick role, they define themselves as ill, seek validation of this experience from others, and give up normal activities
Of the following characteristics, which one is not a part of chronic illness?

a. Permanent change in body structure or function

b. Self-treatment that relieves symptoms

c. Long period of treatment and care

d. Often has remissions and exacerbations
The correct response is b. Acute illnesses are often self-treated to relieve symptoms
The agent–host–environment model of health and illness is based on the concept of:

a. Risk factors

b. Infectious diseases

c. Behaviors to promote health

d. Stages of illness
The correct response is a. The interaction of the agent– host–environment creates risk factors that increase the probability of disease
What do both the health–illness continuum and the high-level wellness models demonstrate?

a. Illness as a fixed point in time

b. The importance of family

c. Wellness as a passive state

d. Health as a constantly changing state
The correct response is d. Both these models view health as a dynamic (constantly changing state).
Following the birth of his first child and after reading about the long-term effects of nicotine, John decides to stop smoking. This behavior change is most likely based on John's perceptions of all but one of the following. Which one is not true?

a. His susceptibility to lung cancer

b. How serious lung cancer would be

c. What benefits his stopping smoking will have

d. Personal choice and economic factors
The correct response is d. Responses a, b, and c are components of the health belief model
Of the following clinic patients, which one is most likely to have annual breast examinations and mammograms based on the physical human dimension?

a. Jane, because her best friend had a benign breast lump removed

b. Sarah, who lives in a low-income neighborhood

c. Tricia, who has a family history of breast cancer

d. Nancy, because her family encourages regular physical examinations
The correct response is c. A family history of breast cancer is a major risk factor
You are asked to teach a group of preschool parents about poison control in the home. This activity is an example of what level of preventive care?

a. Lowest

b. Tertiary

c. Primary

d. Secondary
The correct response is c. Teaching poison control in the home is an example of primary preventive care
As a nurse, you follow the guidelines for a healthy lifestyle. How can this promote health in others?

a. By being a role model for healthy behaviors

b. By not requiring sick days from work

c. By never exposing others to any type of illness

d. By not being overweight
The correct response is a. Good personal health enables the nurse to serve as a role model for patients and families
Of the following descriptors, which one does not accurately pertain to care in a hospital?

a. Acute care provider

b. Inpatient

c. Outpatient

d. Parish nursing
The correct response is d. Hospitals are acute care providers, providing services to both inpatients and outpatients
Which type of healthcare facility employs the largest percentage of RNs?

a. Ambulatory care centers

b. Long-term care

c. Hospitals

d. Clinics
The correct response is c. Despite a downward trend, the largest percent of RNs are employed by hospitals
What is the most rapidly growing area of healthcare services? a. Hospitals
b. Home care
c. Nursing homes
d. Parish nursing
The correct response is b. Home care services are the most rapidly growing area of healthcare
Which healthcare provider is a major source of health assessment and health education for children?

a. Hospital emergency department

b. Community center

c. Nurse practitioner

d. School nurse
The correct response is d. School nurses do provide much of the health assessment and health information for the nation's children
How is respite care best defined?

a. A service that allows time away for caregivers

b. A special service for the terminally ill and their family

c. Direct care provided to individuals in nursing homes

d. Living units for people without regular shelter
The correct response is a. Respite care is provided to enable a primary caregiver time away from the day-to-day responsibilities of homebound patients
Of the following healthcare agencies and services, which one is a government agency?

a. Alcoholics Anonymous

b. Public Health Service

c. Rural health center

d. Ambulatory care center
The correct response is b. The Public Health Service is a government agency
Which purpose best describes managed care as a framework for healthcare?

a. Designed to control the cost of care while maintaining the quality of care

b. Coordinates care to maximize positive outcomes and contain costs

c. The delivery of services from initial contact through ongoing care

d. Based on a philosophy of ensuring death in comfort and dignity
The correct response is a. Managed care is a way of providing care, designed to control costs while maintaining the quality of care.
Your newly employed friend is a part of the company's HMO. This means he:

a. Can have healthcare services from a provider of his choice

b. Will be unable to have emergency care

c. Receives all healthcare from providers within the HMO

d. Must pay an additional monthly premium
The correct response is c. In most HMOs, the patient does not have a choice of healthcare providers and receives all services from providers within the HMO.
Private insurance most often is called a third-party payer. What does this mean?

a. You pay no monthly premium and pay all healthcare costs yourself.

b. You belong to a preferred provider organization.

c. You are at risk if your healthcare provider is not a part of the plan.

d. You pay a monthly premium, and the insurance company pays the bills
The correct response is d. You (and your employer, if appropriate) pay monthly premiums, and the insurance company pays all or most of the cost of care
What type of technology has increased the number of knowledgeable healthcare consumers?

a. Television

b. Computers

c. Cell phones

d. Informatics
The correct response is b. Consumers are increasingly using their home computers to access healthcare information through the Internet.
You are the charge nurse responsible for the evening shift. During rounds you hear the patient care technician yelling loudly to a patient regarding his transfer from the bed to chair. When entering the room your best response is:

a. “You need to speak to the patient quietly. You are disturbing the patient.”

b. “Let me help you with your transfer technique.”

c. “When you are finished, be sure to apologize for your rough demeanor.”

d. “When your patient is safe and comfortable, meet me at the desk.”
The correct answer is d. The charge nurse should direct the patient care technician to determine the patient's safety. Then she or he should address any concerns regarding the patient care technician's communication techniques privately. It is important that the nurse directs the patient care technician on aspects of therapeutic communication
The public health nurse is leaving the home of a young mother who has a special needs baby. The neighbor states, “How is she doing, since the baby's father is no help?” The nurse's best response to the neighbor is:

a. “New mothers need support.”

b. “The lack of a father is difficult.”

c. “How are you today?”

d. “It is a very sad situation.”
The correct answer is a. It is important that the nurse maintain confidentiality when providing care. The statement of “New mothers need support” is a general statement that all new parents need help. The statement is not judgmental of the family's roles.
A 3-year-old child is being admitted to the medical division for vomiting, diarrhea, and dehydration. During the admission interview, the nurse should implement which of the following communication techniques to elicit the most information from the parents?

a. The use of statements that indicate the patient will be all right

b. The use of questions that contain the word how

c. The use of a leading question and those involving yes or no

d. The use of questions that direct comments to clarify
The correct answer is d. Direct comments that clarify will assist the nurse in obtaining adequate information
The nurse enters the patient's room and examines the patient's IV fluids and cardiac monitor. The patient states, “Well, I haven't seen you before. Who are you?” The nurse's best response is:

a. “I'm just the IV therapist checking your IV.”

b. “I've been transferred to this division and will be caring for you.”

c. “I'm sorry, my name is John Smith. I'm responsible for your IV.”

d. “My name is John Smith. I'll be caring for you until 11 p.m.”
The correct answer is d. The nurse should identify himself, be sure the patient knows what will be happening, and the time period he will be with his patient
The nurse enters the room of a patient with cancer. He is crying and states, “I feel so alone.” Of the following statements, which is the most therapeutic?

a. The nurse stands at the patient's bedside and states, “I understand how you feel. My mother said the same thing when she was ill.”

b. The nurse places a hand on the patient's arm and states, “You feel so alone.”

c. The nurse stands in the patient's room and asks, “Why do you feel so alone? Your wife has been here every day.”

d. The nurse holds the patient's hand and asks, “What makes you feel so alone?”
The correct answer is d. The use of Therapeutic Touch conveys acceptance, and the implementation of an open-ended question allows the patient time to verbalize freely
During discharge teaching the nurse should:

a. Determine the progress made in established goals

b. Clarify when the patient should take medications

c. Report the progress made in teaching to the staff

d. Include all family members in the teaching session
The correct answer is a. The discharge planning phase coordinates with the termination phase of a helping relationship. It is important that the nurse determine the progress made in achieving the goals related to the patient's care.
The nursing student is nervous and concerned about the work she is about to do at the clinical facility. To allay anxiety and be successful in her provision of care it is important for her to:

a. Determine the established goals of the institution

b. Be sure her verbal and nonverbal communication is congruent

c. Engage in self-talk to plan her day and decrease her fear

d. Speak with her fellow colleagues about how they feel
The correct answer is c. By engaging in self-talk, or intrapersonal communication, the nursing student can plan her day and enhance her clinical performance to decrease fear and anxiety.
A nurse on the rehabilitation division states to her head nurse, “I need the day off and you didn't give it to me!” The head nurse replies, “Well, I wasn't aware you needed the day off, and it isn't possible since staffing is so inadequate.” In the act of sending the message, which statement would be considered more effective?

a. “Mr. Tyler, I placed a request to have August 8th off, but I'm working and I have a doctor's appointment.”

b. “Mr. Tyler, I would like to discuss my schedule with you. I requested the 8th of August off for a doctor's appointment. Could I make an appointment?”

c. “Mr. Tyler, I will need to call in on the 8th of August because I have a doctor's appointment.”

d. “Mr. Tyler, since you didn't give me the 8th of August off, will I need to find someone to work for me?”
The correct answer is b. Effective communication by the sender involves the implementation of nonthreatening information by showing respect to the receiver. The nurse should identify the subject of the meeting and be sure it occurs at a mutually agreed-upon time.
During a nursing staff meeting, the nurses determine that they will make sure all vital signs are reported and charted within 15 minutes following assessment. This is an example of:

a. Group Decision Making

b. Group Leadership

c. Group Identity

d. Group Patterns of Interaction
The correct answer is c. Ascertaining that the staff completes a task on time and that all members agree the task is important is a characteristic of group identity
patient walking to the bathroom with a stooped gait is noted with facial grimacing. It is important that the nurse assess the patient for:

a. Pain

b. Anxiety

c. Depression

d. Fluid Volume Deficit
The correct answer is a. A patient who presents with nonverbal communication of a stooped gait and facial grimacing is most likely experiencing pain. It is important that the nurse clarify this nonverbal behavior
A nursing student is preparing to administer morning care to the patient. The most important question that the nursing student should ask the patient is:

a. “Would you prefer a bath or a shower?”

b. “May I help you with a bed bath now or later this morning?”

c. “I will be giving you your bath. Do you use soap or shower gel?”

d. “I prefer a shower in the evening. When would you like your bath?”
The correct answer is b. It is important that the nurse asks permission to assist the patient with a bath. This allows for consent to assist the patient with care that invades the patient's private zones.
A nurse is providing instruction to the patient regarding the procedure to change his colostomy bag. During the teaching session he asks, “What type of foods should I avoid to prevent gas?” The question the patient has asked allows for:

a. A closed-ended answer

b. Information clarification

c. The nurse to give advice

d. A yes or no answer
The correct answer is b. The patient's question allows the nurse to clarify information that is new to the patient or that requires further explanation.
When interacting with a patient, the nurse answers, “I am sure everything will be fine. You have nothing to worry about.” This is an example of an inappropriate communication technique known as a:

a. Cliché

b. Giving advice

c. Being judgmental

d. Changing the subject
The correct answer is a. Telling a patient that everything is going to be all right is a cliché. The use of this statement is giving false assurance. The use of clichés gives the patient the impression that the nurse is not interested in the patient's condition.
A 76-year-old patient states, “I have been experiencing complications of diabetes.” The nurse needs to direct the patient to gain more information. What is the most appropriate comment or question to elicit additional information?

a. “Do you take two injections of insulin to decrease the complications?”

b. “Most physicians recommend diet and exercise to regulate blood sugar.”

c. “Most complications of diabetes are related to neuropathy.”

d. “What specific complications have you experienced?”
The correct answer is d. Requesting specific information regarding complications of diabetes will elicit specific information to guide the nurse in further interview questions and specific assessment techniques
During an interaction with a critically ill patient's family, the nurse uses the communication technique of silence. This technique assists the family to:

a. Communicate with the patient

b. Plan for discharge

c. Organize their thoughts

d. Decrease anxiety
The correct answer is c. Silence allows the family to organize their thoughts and develop any questions specific to understanding the patient's care.
An elevation of the body temperature above normal is labeled

a. Fever

b. Hypothermia

c. Hypertension

d. Afebrile
The correct response is a. Fever is an elevation of body temperature. Hypothermia (b) is low body temperature. Hypertension (c) is elevated blood pressure. Afebrile (d) means that there is no elevation of body temperature
For which of the following patients would you use an oral thermometer?

a. 6-month-old infant

b. Patient receiving oxygen therapy by mask

c. 42-year-old healthy woman

d. Unconscious patient
The correct response is c. Use of oral thermometers is contraindicated in infants (a), patients receiving oxygen therapy (b), and unconscious patients (d).
Insertion of a rectal thermometer may cause a potentially harmful condition. This condition is

a. An increase in heart rate

b. A decrease in heart rate

c. An involuntary loss of stool

d. An increase in respirations
The correct response is b. Insertion of a rectal thermometer may stimulate the vagus nerve, which, in turn, would decrease heart rate. This may potentially be harmful for patients with cardiac problems
While taking an adult patient's pulse, a student finds the rate to be 140 beats/min. What should the student do next?

a. Check the pulse again in 2 hours.

b. Check the blood pressure.

c. Record the information.

d. Report the rate.
The correct response is d. A rate of 140 beats/min in an adult is an abnormal pulse and should be reported to the instructor or the nurse in charge of the patient
A patient complains of severe abdominal pain. When assessing the vital signs, the nurse would not be surprised to find

a. An increase in the pulse rate

b. A decrease in body temperature

c. A decrease in blood pressure

d. An increase in body temperature
The correct response is a. The pulse often increases when an individual is experiencing pain. Pain does not affect body temperature and may increase (not decrease) blood pressure
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