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by gringo

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List the 7 senses involved in sensory reception.
- visual
- auditory
- olfactory
- gustatory
- tactile
- stereognosis
- kinesthetic and visceral
What sense perceives the solidity of an object?
What two senses are basic internal orienting systems?
kinesthetic and visceral
Give four conditions to receive data.
- Stimulus
- Receptor
- Nervous pathway to the brain
- Functioning brain
List four factors affecting sensory stimulation.
- Developmental considerations
- culture
- personality and lifestyle
- stress
- medications
What is a poorly defined network that extens from the hypothalamus to the medulla, mediates arousal and monitors and regulates incoming sensory stimuli?
Reticular Activating System (RAS)
What do you call the optimal arousal state?
The reticular activating system runs through what two parts of the brain?
pons and medulla
What are the two states of awareness?
- conscious

- unconscious
Give six levels of being conscious.
- delirium
- dementia
- confusion
- normal consciousness
- somnolence
- chronic vegetative state
What are three levels of unconsciousness?
- Asleep
- stupor
- coma
What is somnolence?
being sleepy
What do you call the slow progression towards more and more confusion?
Give four factor contributing to sensory alteration.
- sensory overload
- sensory deprivation
- sleep deprivation
- cultural care deprivation
What do you call an environment with decreased or monotonous stimuli, the impaired ability to receive environmental stimuli or the inability to process environmental stimuli?
Sensory deprivation
What are three effects of sensory deprivation?
- perceptual
- cognitive
- emotional disturbances
In what condition does the pt experience so much sensory stimuli that the brain is unable to respond meaningfully or ignore stimuli? 
Sensory overload
In sensory overload, the pt feels out of control and exhibits manifestations observed in what?
Sensory deprivation
Nursing care for sensory overload focuses on what?
reducing distressing stimuli and helping pt gain control over environment.
What are four pt outcomes for sensory alteration?
- developmentally stimulating and safe environment
- level of arousal enabling brain to receive and organize stimuli
- intact functioning of the senses
- orientation to time, place and person
Give three ways a nurse can help improve sensory functioning.
- Teach patients and significant others method for stimulating the senses
- teach pts with intact and impaired senses self-care behaviors
- interact therapeutically with pts wth sensory impairments
What are seven ways to prevent senory alterations?
- Control pt discomfort whenever possible
- Offer care that provides rest and comfort
- Be aware of need for sensory aids and prostheses
- Use social activities to stimulate senses and mind
- Enlist aid of family members to participate in or encourage activities
- Encourage physical activity and exercise
- Provide stimulation for as many senses as possible
What are 11 nursing procedures in caring for visually impaired pts?
- teach pt self-care behaviors to maintain vision and prevent blindness
- acknowledge yoru presence in pt's room
- speak  in normal tone of voice
- explain reason for touching person before doing so
- keep call light within reach
- orient person to sounds in environment
- Orient person to room arrangement and furnishings
- assist with ambulation by walking slightly ahead of person
- stay in person's field of vison if he or she has partial vision
- provide diversion using other senses
- indicate conversation has ended when leaving room
What are 8 nursing procedures in caring for hearing impaired pts?
Teach measures to prevent hearing problems Orient person to your presence before speaking Decrease background noises before speaking Check patient’s hearing aids Position self so light is on your face Talk directly to the person while facing him Use pantomime or sign language as appropriate Write any ideas you cannot convey in another manner
Give 7 nursing procedures in communicating with a pt who is confused.
Use frequent face-to-face contact to communicate social process Speak calmly, simply, and directly to patient Orient and reorient patient to environment Orient patient to time, place, and person Communicate that person is expected to perform self-care activities Offer explanations for care Reinforce reality if patient is delusional
Give four nursing procedure in communicating with an unconscious pt.
Be careful what is said in person’s presence; hearing is the last sense that is lost Assume the person can hear you and talk in a normal tone of voice Speak to the person before touching Keep environmental noises at low level
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