Studydroid is shutting down on January 1st, 2019

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Each drug has its own characteristic set of what four things?
1. Therapeutic Applications
2. Interactions
3. Side Effects
4. Mechanism of Action
What type of drug is chemically pure, easier and cheaper to process and prepare and there is excellent control on the quality of the drug?
Synthetic Drug
The pharmacological  activity of a drug depends on what two things?
1. chemical structure
2. physical properties
More effective and safer drugs can be prepared by modifying what structure of a drug?
chemical structure
From what four sources are natural drug sources derived?
1. Plants (roots, leaves or bark)
2. animal sources
3. microbiological sources
4. mineral sources
What do you call the study or science of drugs?
Pharmacology
What organization defines drugs as substances or products that are used or intended  to be used to modify or to explore the physiological system or the pathological state for the benefit of the recipient?
World Health Organization (WHO)
What is the application of drugs for the purpose of disease prevention and treatment of suffering?
Pharmacotherapy
(Pharmacotherapeutics)
Therapeutics is the branch of medicine concerned with what two things?
1. prevention of disease
2. treatment of suffering
Substances for therapeutic purposes fall into what three general categories?
1. Drugs or medications
2. Biologies
3. Alternative therapies
What do you call a chemical agent capable of producing biological responses either therapeutic or adverse within the body?
Drug
What do you call an agent naturally produced in animal cells by microorganisms or by the body itself? (Ex. hormones, monoclonal antibiotics, natural blood products, interferon, vaccines)
biologic
What therapies involve natural plant extracts, herbs, vitamins, minerals, dietary supplements and som considered "unconventional".  Also includes acupuncture, hypnosis, biofeedback and massage.
Complementary & Alternative Therapies
Prescription drugs require what?
an order from a healthcare provider
What are three advantages of the authorization requirement?
- healthcare provider has opportunity to examine the client for diagnosis
- healthcare provider can maximize therapy by ordering proper drug, dose, frequency of drug, based on the client's condition
- better education and monitoring
What medications do not require an order from the healthcare provider?
Over-the-counter
What are four advantages of over-the-counter medications?
- Easier to obtain
- no appointment with healthcare provider required
- safe when instructions followed carefully
- saves time and money
What are three disadvantages of  over-the-counter medications?
- Can be challenging to choose without healthcare provider
- OTC drugs may react with foods, herbal products, prescription meds or other OTC medications
- Self treatment may be ineffective with protential for harm
What was the 1st standary commonly used by pharmacists and contains a list of drugs and drug recipes?
Formulary
What was the 1st comprehensive publication of drug standards in the US (1820)?  It is now merged wiht the National Formulary and published every 5 years.
US Pharmacopoeia
The US Pharmacopoeia is a medical reference guide summarizing standards for what three things?
- drug purity
- strength
- directions for synthesis
What government organization was established in 1988 and exercises control over which prescription and OTC drugs can be used for therapy?
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
What three areas does the FDA regulate?
1. Keeps the drugs available safe
2. Regulates the use of biologics
3. Regulates herbal and dietary supplements
Organizing drugs based on their therapeutic usefulness in treating particular diseases is called what?
Therapeutic classification
What refers to the way an agent works at the molecular, tissue, body system level, or its mechanism of action?
Pharmacologic classification
What describes how a drug produces its effect in the body?
Mechanism of Action
What is the well understood drug model after which other drugs in a pharmalogical class are compared?
Prototype drug
By knowing the prototype drug, one may predict what?
the actions and adverse effects of other drugs in the same class
The prototype drug is not always the most widely used drug in the class, which is an important reason to keep us with what?
newer, more effective medications
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