Studydroid is shutting down on January 1st, 2019

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Give three alternative routes of delivery that bypass the first-pass effect.
- sublingual
- rectal
- parenteral
What process removes drugs from the body?
Excretion
The tate at whicch meds are excreted determines their concentration in the bloodstream and tissues, whcih determines what?
duration of action
What three conditions increase duration of actions?
- Liver disease
- Renal failure
- Renal disease
Give three pharmacokinetic variables associated with aging.
- take more medications
- have more chronic diseases
- less than optimal renal function
What is the primary site of excretion?
Kidneys
The average-sized person filters hwo many liters of blood per day?
180
Free drugs, water-soluble agents, electrolytes and small molecules are easily filtered by what?
the glomerulus
What three things are not filtered in the kidneys due to their large size?
Proteins
blood cells
drug-protein complexes
The therapeutic response of most drugs is directly related to what?
their level in the plasma
Name three drugs whose serum levels can be measured in lab tests.
- blood thinners
- antibiotics
- seizure meds
Several important pharmacokinetic principles can be illustrated by measuring what of a drug following a single-dose administration?
serum levels
What do you call the amount of drug required to produce a therapeutic effect?
minimum effective concentration
What do you call the level of drug that will result in serious adverse effects?
toxic concentration
The plasma concentratoin between the minimum effective concentration and the toxic concentration is called what?
the therapeutic range of a drug
The most common description of a drug's duration of action is what?
its half life
What is the length of time required for the plasma concentration of a medication to decrease in half after administration?
half-life
The greater the half-life determines what?
the less often a drug must be taken
The greater the half-life, the longer it takes a medication to do what?
be excreted
T/F

A drug with a half-lige of 10 hours would take longer to be excreted thus produce a longer effect in the body than a drug with a half-life of 5 hours.
True
The shorter the half-life, the more often what?
The drug must be taken
A plateau is reacehed when the level of drug is maintained continuously within the therapeutic range, resulting in what?
Equilibirum
When repeated doses result in the accumulation of a drug that is equal to the amount of drug eliminated, the amount administered has reached what?
equilibrium
What do you call the accumulation of a drug?
plasma concentration
Theoretically, how many half-lives does it take to reach equilibirum?
4
A palteau may be reached fater by administering what?
a loading dose
What is a higher amount of drug, often given only once or twice, that is administered to "prime" the bloodstream with a level sufficient to quickly induce a therapeutic response?
a loading dose
Before plasma levels can drop back down to zero, what intermitten doses are given to keep the plasma drug concentration in the therapeutic range?
maintenance doses
Serum drug levels are monitored by drawing a lab specimen and measureing what?
the level of drug in the serum
Serum drug tests are especially important for what four types of drugs?
- aminoglycocides
- antibiotics
- digoxin and warfarin
- some seizure meds
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