Studydroid is shutting down on January 1st, 2019

by gringo


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What do you call the point at which the drug is at it slowest concentration and is drawn in the 30 minute window before the next dose of the drug?
trough level
The trough level should reflect what?
The lowest level concentration of a drug
What is the process by which drugs alter cell physiology and affect the body?
Pharmacodynamics
What do you call the graphical representation of teh number of clients responding to a drug action at different doses?
Frequency distribution curve
What is the dose required to produce a specific reponse in 50% of a group of pts?
median effective dose
What is the dose of drug that will be lethal in 50% of animals in preclinical trials?
median lethal dose
What is the ratio of a drug's median effective does and its median lethal dose?
therapeutic index
The therapeutic index is a measure of what?
A drug's safety margin
The higher the value of the therapeutic index of a drug signifies what?
The safer the medicine
What dose is measured in a clinical setting and is the dose that will produce toxicity in 50% of a group of pts?
median toxicity dose
What measures a client's repsonse to a drug at different dosages?
graded-dose reponse relationship
What are two fundamental ways to compare drugs within the same therapeutic and pharmacologic class?
Potency
Efficacy
A drug that is more potent will produce a therapeutic effect at what dose compared with a drug in the same class?
a lower dose
What is the magnitude of maximal response that can be produced from a particular drug?
Efficacy
Whar are cellular macromolecules to which medications bind to initiate its effect?
Cellular receptors
Cellular receptors affect a drug's what?
Efficacy
What do you call a drug that produces the same type of response as teh endogenous substance, sometimes producing a greater maximal response than the endogenous chemical?
agonist
What agonist relieves or decreases pain without causing the person to lose conciousness?
narcotic agonist (narcotic analgesic)
What do you call a drug that produces a weaker response than an agonist?
Partial agonist
What do you call a drug that will occupy a receptor and prevent the endogenous chemical from acting?
Antagonist
What blocks the effect of narcotic agonists and are used to reverseĀ  adverse drug reactoins such as respiratory and CNS depression?
Narcotic antagonists
What are undesirable effects other than the intended therapeutic effects?
Adverse drug effects
What are two types of drug effects where allergens cause the immune system to react?
- allergic affect
- anaphylaxis
What do you call it when the body becomes accustomed to a drug?
drug tolerance
What adverse drug effect means that the drug carries the risk of permanent damage or death?
toxic effect
What adverse drug effect happens when the body can't metabolize one dose of a drug before another is administered?
Cumulative effect
What adverse drug effect is any unusual response to a drug that may manifest itself by over-response, under-response, or even opposite the expected response?
idiosyncratic effect
What is an acute tolerance to a drug?
Tachyphylaxis
What do you call the combined effect of 2 or more dugs acting simultaneously to produce an effect that is less than that of each drug alone?
Antagonistic effect
Waht do you call the combined effect of 2 or more drugs acting simultaneously to produce an effect that is greater than that of each drug alone?
Synergistic effect
What factor affecting drug action would include teratogenic drugs that have the potential to cause defects in the embryo or fetus?
Developmental considerations
What factor affecting drug action would include expected responses based largely on a body weight of 150 lbs?
Weight
What factor affecting drug action would include the distribution of body fat and fluids that has some effect?
Gender
What factor affecting drug action would include religious restrictions and beliefs affect response to, acceptance of and compliance iwth drug therapies?
Genetic & cultural factors
What factor affecting drug action would include a patient's expectatoins of a drug?
Psychological factors
What factor affecting drug action would include the presence of disease and how it affects drug action?
Pathology
What factor affecting drug action would include sensory deprivation or overload; nutritional state?
Environment
What factor affecting drug action would include the presence of food in the stomach that may delay absorption or enhance absorption?
Timing of administration
What is a pharmacologcially inactive substance?
Placebo
Whis is often the first person to recognize whether a drug is working or not?
nurse
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