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Front Back
Transverse plane
waist up and waist down
Sagittal plane
Body split in 1/2, left and right
Coronal plane
Body split into front and back
Medial
Toward the middle
Lateral
Away from the midline/toward the outside
Proximal
Closer to the midline
Distal
Further away from midline
Superior
Above
Inferior
Below
Anterior or ventral
Front
Posterior or dorsal
Back
6 functions of the skeletal system
1. Makes up body framework and gives body shape.
2. Supports the body.
3. Protects vital internal organs.
4. Provides for movement.
5. Stores mineral reserves.
6. Produces red blood cells.
What is bone?
A living tissue. A solid network of cells and protein fibers surrounded by deposits of minerals.
Bone is made of what?
Inorganic and organic material (collagen and bone cells), minerals (hydroxyapetites, calcium, phosphorous), and water
Four main types of bone cells in bone tissue
Osteogenic, osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts
Osteogenic cells
Respond to traumus, such as fractures, giving rise to osteoblasts and osteoclasts
Osteoblasts
Bone-forming cells that synthesize and secrete unmineralized ground substance and are found in areas of high metabolism within the bone
Osteocytes
Mature bone cells made from osteoblasts that have made bone tissue around themselevs
Osteoclasts
Large cells that break down bone tissue. Very important to bone growth, healing, and remodeling.
4 main types of skeletal tissue
Compact, spongy, cartilage, and fibroblasts
Fibroblasts
Bits of bone that form in ligaments and tendons over time
Compact bone
A dense layer of bone tissue composed of cylinders or tubes of mineral crystals and protein fibers, that give bone its strength
Spongy bone
The inside layer of compact bone that is actually quite strong but lacy in appearance and contains red marrow which produces blood cells
Epiphysis
The ends of the bone
Diaphysis
Shaft of the bone
Metaphysis
the growing part of a long bone between the diaphysis and the epiphysis
Periosteum
Covers bone, is a place for tendon and ligament attachment, and brings blood, lymph vessels, and nerves into the bone.
Bone marrow
Stores fat that serves as an energy reserve and contains blood vessels and nerve cells (primarily yellow marrow)
The periosteum protects from what?
Infection
Fossilization
Mineralization of the bone in which the organic materials (collagen) are completely replaced by inorganic materials
What is needed for fossilization to occur? What does this mean?
Specific environmental criteria must be met and it is, therefore, difficult for fossilization occur. The vast majority of individuals don't end up as fossils.
3 aids of fossilization
1. Death and minimal exposure to scavengers.
2. Somewhere near water helps (ground water leaches organic material out, replacing it with minerals/rock).
3. Covered by sediments quickly (protected from scavengers and decay).
The axial skeleton
Constists of the skull, vertebral column, and the rib cage
Crania
Often the only thing that is preserved, as well as the teeth.
Enamel
The outer covering on the crown of the tooth which protects it from chemical and physical destruction.
What is the hardest substance in the human body? Why?
Enamel. 98% inorganic.
What information can be obtained from teeth?
Age (baby teeth, wisdom teeth), sex (difficult), diet, and health (wear pattern, size)
The rib cage is also called what? How many ribs are there and what kind?
The thoracic cage. 7 true ribs, 5 false, 2 floating.
Locomotion
Placement of the shoulder girdle, arm rotation, muscle attachments, and lung capacity (rib cage adaptation)
Appendicular skeleton
Bones of the arms, legs, shoulder girdle, and hip girdle
Shoulder girdle is also called what and consists of what?
Pectoral girdle. Clavicle and scapula. 60 bones (hands and wrist contain 54 separate bones)
Hip girdle is also called what and constist of what?
Pelvic girdle. 2 bones. Lower limbs have 60 bones (ankles and feet 52)
sexual dimorphism
Morphological differences between the sexes. Allows us to determine sex based on combination of skeletal features.
Robusticity
Size relative to length.
Wolff's Law/biomechanics of bone
When force is applied to bone, it responds through remodeling to counteract those forces.
Cortical area thickness
Used in bone remodeling because a thicker cortical area indicates a stronger bone and more use of that bone
3 main things bone remodeling indicates
1. Biomechanical properties of bone (between human, hominin, and non-human).
2. Differences in activity between culture (subsitence practices, sexual division of labor).
3. Asymmetry in arm use (handedness).
Sexing
Determining biological sex
Difference in male and female sciatic notch
The female sciatic notch angle is wider and the male angle is more acute.
5 primary factors in cranial sex estimation
Nuchal crest, mastoid process, supra-orbital margin, supra-orbital ridge/glabella, mental eminence
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