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Tiny spherical bodies composed of RNA and protein; actual sites of protein sysnthesis; floating free or attached to a membranous structure (the rough ER) in the cytoplasm
Various-sized membranous sacs containing digestive enzymes (acid hydrolases); function to digest worn-out cell organelles and foreign substances that enter the cell; have the capacity of total cell destruction if ruptured
Membranous system of tubules that extends throughout the cytoplasm; two varieties-rough ER is studded with ribosomes (tubules of rough ER provide an area for storage and transport of the proteins made on the ribosomes to other cell areas; external face synthesizes phospholipids and cholesterol) and smooth ER, which has no function in protein synthesis (rather it is a site of steroid and lipid synthesis, lipid metabolism, and drug detoxification)
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
Stack of flattened sacs with bulbous ends and associated small vesicles; found close to the nucleus; playes a role in packaging proteins or other substances for export from the cell or incorporation into the plasma membrane and in packaging lysosomal enzymes
Golgi Apparatus
Generally rod-shaped bodies witb a double-membrane wall; inner membrane is thrown into folds, or cristae; contain enzymes that exidize foodstuffs to produce cellular energy (ATP); often referred to as \"powerhouses of the cell\"
Small lysosome-like membranous sacs containing oxidase enzymes that detoxify alcohol, hydrogen peroxide, and other harmful chemicals
Provide cellular support; function in intracellular transport; microfilaments are formed largely of actin, a contractile protein, and thus are important in cell mobility (particularly in muscle cells); intermediate filaments are stable elements composed of a variety of proteins and resist mechanical forces acting on cells; microtubles form the internal structure of the centrioles and help determine cell shape
Cytoskeletal elements: Microfilaments, Intermediate filaments, and Microtubles
Paired, cylindrical bodies lie at right angles to each other, close to the nucleus; direct the formation of the mitotic spindle during cell division; form the bases of cilia and flagella
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