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What are the two major divisions of the nervous system
1. CNS 2. PNS
What composes CNS
brain and spinal cord
What two areas are there in the PNS
1. Somatic (voluntary muscles) 2. Autonomic (Changes in viscera) smooth muscles
What two divisions are in the Somatic?
1. Afferent: sensory nerve fibers 2. Efferent: motor fibers
What are the 3 divisions of ANS
1. Sympathetic 2. Parasympathetic 3. Enteric
What are the two halves of the brain called
Cerebral Hemispheres
What connects the hemispheres
corpus collosum
What is the outer grey matter of matter
What are the four lobes of the cortex
Frontal, Parietal, Temporal, Occipital
What are the primary functions of lobes as a whole
1. Sensory, 2. Motor, or 3. Association (Processing)
What are the three divisions of each lobe of the cortex?
Primary, Secondary, Tertiary
Describe Primary Division
fewest # of synapses, Sensory comes here first, leaves from Tertiary
Describe Secondary Division
intermediate # of synapses, passes signal
Describe Tertiary Dvisions
Most synapses found here.  Motor starts here and leaves from Primary down the spinal cord
Topographic Organization (3)
1. Somatotopic - one region of brain for senses 2. Retinotopic - visual part of the brain 3. Tonotopic - sound frequency area of brain
What are the major divisions of the spinal cord/
1. Deep Cerebral Nuclei 2. Dienchephalon 3. Brain Stem 4. Cerebellum
What are the three parts of the Deep Cerebral Nuclei?
1. Basal Ganglia - recieves sensory information then sends it to frontal cortex, refines body movements 2. Hippocampus - memory 3. Amygdala - emotions, ANS connection
What are the two major portions of the dienchephalon?
1. Thalamus - modifies the response, all sensory information and all motor down go through here. 2. Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland - modulates pituitary gland with own hormones.  Regulates food, temp, water.
What are the two hormones secreted by hypothalamus?
ADH, Oxytosin
What are the three parts of the brain stem?
1. Midbrain - controls eye movements, relay nucleus for vision 2. Pons - regulates respiration 3. Medulla - vasomotor center, swallowing, coughing
What does the Cerebellum do?
coordination of body movements, head and eye movements, maintains posture
What major things are in the brainstem?
10 out of 12 CN nuclei 3-12
What increases surface area of cortex
Frontal Lobe:  What is the Primary Motor Cortex
located in precentral gyrus.  Brochman's #4.  Command center for body movement.  Cell bodies for upper motor neurons found here.
Frontal Lobe:  What is Motor Association Complex
involved in complex motor activities, motor planning, sends signal to primary motor division.  Broadman's #6.
Frontal Lobe:  What does Pre-Frontal Cortex do?
Complex thoughts and emotions, problem solving, behavior regulated here.  Weird injury gives weird behavior.
Frontal Lobe:  Broca's Area
Broadman's 44, 45, Speech articulation.
What does motor homunculus tell us?
Most of cortex is dedicated to hands and face, least to elbow, wrist, and feat.  Inverted top to bottom of body.`
What is the division for frontal lobe?
Central Sulcus
What are two main divisions of Parietal Lobe?
1. Primary somatosensory Cortex 2. Sensory association Cortex
Describe the Primary Somatosensory Cortex
located on post central gyrus, touch, pain, somatic senses,
Describe Sensory Association Cortex
Planning area, secondary somaticsensory.  planning are for senses.
Describe Sensory Homunculus
Most sensory nerves to face and hands, smallest area in elbows  and arms
What are the four areas of the temporal lobe?
1. Auditory Complex 2. Auditory Association Cortex 3. Wernicke's Area 4. Limbic System
Describe the auditory complex
signal relayed here, processes sound frequencies, Broadman's 41, found near lateral fissure
Auditory Association Cortex
Helps in planning more complicated sound frequencies, Broadman's 42
Wernicke's Area
Language comprehension, processing with Broca's
Describe Limbic System
Involved in Memory, , emotions, and regulating autonomic stuff
What are two parts of Occipital Lobe
1. Visual Cortex 2. Visual Association Area
Describe Visual Cortex
Has a Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Divisions.  Primary is encased in Secondary which is encased in Tertiary.  Goes from Primary with least number of synapses to tertiary with most.
What is Vertebral Canal
the hole up the vertebrae for the spinal cord
What are the cervical and lumbar enlargements on spinal cord?
lots of neurons for appendages upper and lower
What is the Conus Medularis
The very end of the spinal cord, smallest region of spinal cord, it is encased by pia matter and meninges.
What is the filum terminale
The last fiber cord of the spinal cord to help keep it in place
How many pairs of segments are there in the spinal cord
How does it innervate spatially
nerves correspond to position they leave on body.
What is the Cauda Equina?
All the spinal nerves at the end that hang down because the cord stops before the vertebrae.
How do spinal nerves exit the vertebral canal
Intravertebral foramen
Where are the cell bodies located in the spinal cord
grey matter (middle)
Where are the axons in spinal cord
up columns
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