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by vilka9


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What is social Cognition?
How ppl select, interpret, remember, and use social information to make judgements and decisions about themselves and the social world
Why did Diallo get shot in terms of self-esteem maintenance?
the officers saw what made them feel good about themselves
Why did Diallo get shot in terms of social cognition approach?
THey were doing their best to be accurate, but made a tragic mistake
Define Automatic thinking.
Unconscious, Involutary, Unitnentional, Effortless
Define Controlled Thinking
Conscious, Intentional, Voluntary, effortful
In Payne's experiment with automatic thinking what were the results?
When presented a black face, people often misidentified the tool for a weapon compared to the white face.
What are some other examples of Automatic Thinking?
Schemas
What is a schema
mental structures ppl use to organize their knowledge around themes or objects

They influence the information people notice, think about and remember
Why are schemas so important?
1. Guide attention and memory
2. Help us interpret ambiguous situations
What is accessibility?
the extent to which schemas are at the forefront of our minds and likely to be used when making judgments
What is priming?
the process by which recent experiences increase the accessibility of a schema, trait or concept
What is chronically accessible ?
schema that is constantly accessible, like being an alcoholic
How can schemas get us into trouble?
Distort what we see and remember
What is step 1 of the self-fulfilling prophecy?
Forming and Expectancy
What are some examples of Forming an expectancy.
Category based
Personal experiences, first impression
Implicit Personality Theories
Theories of what kinds of personality traits go together
Step 2 of Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
Perceptual Confirmation--we see what we expect to see
Are we aware of perceptual confirmations?
NOPE, these are automatic and we ignore disconfirming information
What is step 3 of the Self-Fulfilling prophecy?
Behavioral Confirmation.

expectations lead us to behave in such a way that the target unintentionally confirms our expectation.
In Zanna's Study, what is immediacy?
Receiving more smiles, interactions, encouragement, and time
IN Zanna's Step 1 Results
White confederates received more smiles, interaction, encouragement, and time.

The perceptual confirmation was that the WHITE interviewers saw what they expected in WHITE applicants (confederates)
Results of his study? (step 2)
THose in "high immediacy" condition interviewed extremely well compared to "low immediacy" condition
Snyder's experiment included rating conversation with women and males were given bogus photograph labeling the women as attractive or not atractive. Results?
the "attractive" women were given more time b/c they are thought to be more socially skilled. the outgoing activities were illicited.
BLoomers test did what?
Random Children were labled as bloomers but nobody knew except teacher, teacher confirmed it and they did better on IQ test later in the year
WHy did bloomers do better?
1. Climate
2. feedback
3. input
4. output--teachers gave bloomers more opportunities to respond and this shaped their answers
Who did the teachers like/dislike?
1. Bloomers who did well=Liked
2. Non bloomers who did poorly=LIked
3. Non-Bloomers that did not do well=disliked the most.
4. Bloomers who did poorly=disliked
Give another replication of the self-fulfilling prophecy
1. PReschoolers in a headstart program
2. Children learning swimming at camp
3. Air force Recruits learning math
4. Manual workers learning trades
Give the flow of self-fulfilling prophecy (WRITE IT DOWN!)
1.Perceiver forms expectancy about target--Perceptual confirmation-->perceiver interprets target behavior through bias of expectation-->perceiver acts acording to biased perception ; target response in kind to perceiver's behavior---behavioral confirmation-->back to 1
What is an Availability Heuristic ?
People base a judgement on the ease with which they can bring something to mind--often useful but can lead to errors
Give example of availability Heuristic:
6-12 assertive acts. 12 is harder and there were more unassertive acts
Availabilty Heuristic and Death. what's the point?
the more vivid and imaginable a death, the easier it is to remember
What is a Representativeness Heuristic?
Mental shortcut whereby people classify something according to how similar it is to a typical case
Problems with Representativeness ?
Can lead to errors like ignoring base rate information
What is an Anchoring & Adjustment Heuristic ?
Mental shortcut that involves using a numeric value as a starting point, and then adjusting one's answer away from this anchor
How are Anchoring & Adjustment Heuristics useful? How can it breed errors?
Useful if anchor is valid

Errors if anchor is invalid
Problems with Anchoring & Adjustment Heuristic in terms of experiment
We often do not adjust our numbers enough with the anchors.

Our estimates are biased towards the anchors
What is Gilbert's theory about Automatic Thinking?
Automatic Believing-->Controlled unbelieving
WHat is the Controlled Thinking Flow Chart?
Automatic-->initial acceptance of information--->assess truthfulness of accepted belie (controlled)f-->unaccept as necessary (controlled)
Why isn't controlled thinking beneficial?
Police target and stop pedestrians, airline passengers, and motorists on the basis of their race.
What is a monitoring process?
Automatic thought. Search for evidence of unwanted thought
What is a Operating Process?
Controlled thought--distract self by finding something else to think about
What happens if your operating process does not kick in? If it does kick in?
Hyper-Accessible thoughts.

Successful though suppression
What are some ways we can improve human thinking?
1. Reconsider automatic assumptions.
2. consider the opposite
3. Teach reasoning skills
what type of graduate student scored the highest on a statistical reasoning test?
Psychology
What is Counterfactual thinking?
Mentally changing some aspect of the past as a way of imagining what might have been
what is the overconfidence barrier?
the fact that people usually have too much confidence in the accuracy of their judgments
What is an analytic thinking style?
a type of thiking in which people focus on the properties of objects without considering their surrounding context; this is a western approach
what is a holistic thinking style?
type of thinking in which people focus on the overall context, particularly the ways in which objects relate to each other; this is Eastern approach.
What is an overconfidence barrier?
The fact that people usually have too much confidence in the accuracy of their judgments
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