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by gringo


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What are organisms tha are able to bypass the body's defenses and cause disease?
Pathogens
Name five types of pathogens.
- Bacteria
- viruses
- fungi
- protozoa
- helminthes
Pathogens cause disease by what two methods?
- dividing rapidly to overcome body defenses
- disrupting normal cell function
What do you call the therapy in which antibiotics are given before the organism is cultured?
Empiric antibiotic therapy
Pathogens secrete what?
Toxins
What do you call toxins that are contained in the cell walls of some microorganisms, released when the bacterium dies and is broken down?
Endotoxins
What do you call a toxin that is secreted or excreted by a living microorganism?
endotoxin
True/False

The more virulent the pathogen the less chance for transmission and the less virulent the pathogen, the greater chance for transmission.
True
What is the ability of organisms to cause infections?
pathogenicity
What is the mease of disease-producing potential or the ability to cause disease or infection called?
Virulence
True/False

Highly virulent pathogens can cause disease even when present in small numbers.
True
True/False

Sperical-shaped bacteria are called cocci.
True
True/False

Gram-staining is one way to identify bacteria.
True
True/False

Bacteria are either aerobic or anaerobic.
False

Some organisms have the ability to change their metabolism and survive in either environment
True/False

E-coli are gram negative organisms.
True
True/False

bacteria are multicellular organisms.
False

Bacteria are single celled organisms
What shape are bacilli?
rod-shaped
What shape are cocci?
spherical
What shape are spirilla?
corkscrew
What do you call bacteria that need oxygen to survive?
aerobic
What do you call bacteia that do not need oxygen to survive?
anerobic
Which organisms do not take up the violet color stain used in Gram's method of testing?
gram-negative
Name three gram-negative organisms.
- ECO4
- pseudomonas aeruginosa
- acinetobacter
Name three gram positive bacteria.
- staphylococcus aureus
- staphylococcus pneumoniae
- enterococcus
Anti-Infective drugs are known as what three types?
- antibacterials
- antimicrobials
- antibiotics
Anti-Infectives are classified according to what two criteria?
- Chemical structure (aminoglycosides, fluroquinolones)
- Mechanism of action (cell-wall inhibitor, folic-acid inhibitor)
Anti-Infectives target what three things is the organism?
- structure
- metabolism
- life cycle
What do bactericidals do?
kill bacteria
What do bacteriostatics do?
slow bacterial growth
Broad spectrum antibiotics can cause what?
A super infection
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