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What is the prototype drug for cephalosporins?
cefotaxime (Claforan)
What is the mechanism of action for cephalosporin cefotaxime (Claforan)?
to act with broad spectrum activity against gram-negative organism
What is the primary use of cephalosporin cefotaxime (Claforan)?
serious infections of the lower respiratory, CNS, GU (genitourinary) system, bones, blood and joints
What are five adverse effects of cephalosporin cefotaxime (Claforan)?
- N/V/D
- pseudomembranous colitis
- hypersensitivity
- anaphylaxis
- pain at injection site
Why should the presence of bleeding disorders with cephalosporin cefotaxime (Claforan)?
cephalosporins may reduce prothrombin levels
What should be avoided with cephalosporin cefotaxime (Claforan)? Why?
Alcohol because it can cause disulfiram-like reactions
What two bodily functions should be assessed with cephalosporin cefotaxime (Claforan)?
renal and hepatic functions
Cephalosporin cefotaxime (Claforan) are given po to decrease what?
GI sx
Cephalosporin cefotaxime (Claforan) should be given IM where?
in large muscles
What is the prototype druge for tetracycline?
tetracycline HCL (Achromycin)
What is the mechanism of action of tetracycline HCL (Achromycin)?
effective against broad range of gram+ and gram- organisms
Name four pathogens tetracycline HCL (Achromycin) is used for.
- chlamydia
- rickettsiae
- mycoplasma
- rocky mountain spotted fever
What are 5 adverse effects of tetracycline HCL (Achromycin)?
- superinfections
- NVD
- epigastric burning
- discoloration of teeth
- photosensitivity
Uses tetracycline HCL (Achromycin) with caution with what pts?
pts with impaired liver or kidney function
Tetracycline HCL (Achromycin) is contraindicated in what two groups?
- pregnant or lactating women
- children less than 8 years of age
What is the common adverse effect of tetracycline HCL (Achromycin) when given to children less than 8 years of age?
teeth mottling and discoloration
Tetracycline HCL (Achromycin) decreases the effectiveness of what?
BCPs
T/F

The risk for superinfections with tetracycline HCL (Achromycin) is low.
False

The risk for superinfection with tetracycline HCL (Achromycin) is high
What three things should be avoided with tetracycline HCL (Achromycin)?
- milk products
- iron
- magnesium containing meds
Why should calcium and iron be avoided with tetracycline HCL (Achromycin)?
binds with calcium and iron to decrease absorption by up to 50%
What is the prototype drug for macrolides?
erythromycin (E-mycin or Erythrocin)
What is the mechanism of action for microslide erythromycin (E-mycin or Erythrocin)?
act as a spectrum similar to PCN; effective against gram+ bacteria
What are four primary uses for microslide erythromycin (E-mycin or Erythrocin)?
- pertussis (whooping cough)
- diptheria
- legionaires disease
- most gram+ organisms
What are three adverse effects of microslide erythromycin (E-mycin or Erythrocin)?
- N/V
- abdominal cramping
- hepatotoxicity (most severe)
What two things should be assessed for with microslide erythromycin (E-mycin or Erythrocin)?
- presence of respiratory infection
- hx of cardiac disorders
What should be monitored with microslide erythromycin (E-mycin or Erythrocin)?
liver enzymes
Is there a risk of drug-drug reactions with microslide erythromycin (E-mycin or Erythrocin)?
Yes
Is microslide erythromycin (E-mycin or Erythrocin) broad or narrow spectrum?
broad-spectrum
Is the risk for superinfection high or low with microslide erythromycin (E-mycin or Erythrocin)?
high
T/F

Microslide erythromycin (E-mycin or Erythrocin) is a safe alternative to PCN
True
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