Studydroid is shutting down on January 1st, 2019

by gringo


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The cell wall of mycobacterium tuberculosis is resistant to what?
Antibiotics
The body's immune response to mycobacterium tuberculosis tries to isolate the pathogen by doing what?
Walling it off
Mycobacterium tuberculosis may remain dormant in walled-off areas called what?
Tubercles
Mycobacterium tuberculosis can become active with a decrease in what?
the immune system
How much time is needed to reach isolated pathogens in the long-term therapy of Mycobacterium tuberculosis?
6-12 months
T/F

Therapy is discontued for Mycobacterium tuberculosis if there are no symptoms
False

may continue therapy even if there are no symptoms
How much time is required for multi-drug resitant TB infections therapy?
24 months
Describe multidrug therapy for TB.
2-4 abx administered concurrently
T/F

Mycobacterium grows slowly and is commonly resistant
True
What is DOT?
Directly Observed Therapy - forcing drug administration
What drugs are used to prevent TB in high risk patients?
Chemoprophylactic antituberculosis drugs
What are the three groups of high-risk patients for TB?
Close contacts/family membersHIV+ or AIDSSevere immunosuppression
The client receives multiple drugs for tx of TB. The student nurse teaches the client the rationale for multiple drug tx, and evaluates learning as effective when the client makes which statement? a. “Tx for TB is complex, and multiple drugs must be continued for as long as contagious.” b. “Multiple drugs are necessary because the bacteria are likely to develop immunity to TB.” c. “Multiple drug tx is necessary for me to be able to develop immunity to TB.” d. “Current research indicates that the most effective way to tx TB is with multiple drugs.”
d. “Current research indicates that the most effective way to tx TB is with multiple drugs.”
Of the following, which concept is most critical in preventing the development of resistant strains of microbes? a. Exposure of pathogens to an antimicrobial agent without cellular death. b. Drug dosages which are below therapeutic levels. c. The duration of use. d. The frequency of drug ingestion.
c. The duration of use.
One way microorganisms develop resistance to anti-infective drugs is: (select all that apply) a. By rearranging their DNA to produce permeable membranes. b. By producing enzymes that stimulate the drug. c. By changing the cellular membrane to allow drug entry into the cell. d. By altering binding sites on the membrane or ribosomes so that the drug cannot enter the cell. e. By producing a chemical that acts as an antagonist to the drug.
d. By altering binding sites on the membrane or ribosomes so that the drug cannot enter the cell. e. By producing a chemical that acts as an antagonist to the drug.
What are three good ways to minimize the emergence of drug-resistant microbials?
- Avoid the use of broad-spectrum abx when treating trivial or viral infections. Broad spectrum abx’s are more likely to destroy normal flora. - Use narrow-spectrum agents if they are thought to be effective. - Do not use Vancomycin unnecessarily.
What is an appropriate intervention to reduce accumulation of a drug in the kidney?
Increase fluids! At least 2L/day Remember that toxic effects on the kidneys is the most common, potentially serious, adverse effect of antimicrobial drugs.
What does a culture and sensitivity determine? When should this test be performed?
Culture determines the causative organism and sensitivity determines the antibiotic(s) that is/are sensitive (will work to destroy) the causative organism (the infection). Do the C&S before initiating abx therapy.
What lab is most important to monitor when your patient is prescribed an IV aminoglycoside?
Renal studies (BUN & Creatinine)
What is the most important info to find out when your patient tells you they are allergic to a medication?
What the allergic action was
What is a potentially  serious adverse effect when receiving gentamycin?
Ototoxicity with c/o difficulty hearing, hold the dose and call the MD immediately.
What is a severe reaction associated with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole use in older adults?
Bone marrow depression - look at CBC (complete blood count): specifically the white blood cell count w/ differential.
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