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What are the 4 organs of the urinary system?
Kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra
State the 6 functions of the urinary system 
1. Waste Product Elimination
2. Blood pressure regulation
3. Acid/base balance
4. Electrolyte balance
5. Production or erythropoeitin
6. Hydroregulation
What functions of the urinary system match the functions of the cardiovascular system?
Acid/Base balance
Blood Pressure Regulation
List 2 hormones produced by the kidneys and indicate their functions
1. Antidiuretic Hormone- affects the reabsorption of water
2. Erythropoietin- Stimulates the production of erythrocytes by bone marrow.
What 5 structures attach to the renal Hilum?
1. Renal artery
2. Renal Vein
3. Nerve plexus
4. lymphatic vessels
5. ureter
List the 3 major components of a nephron
glomerulus, glomerular capsule, and renal tubule
List the 4 parts of a renal tubule
1. Proximal Convoluted tubule
2. Nephron Loop
3. distal convoluted tubule
4. renal collecting tubule
list the 3 processes involved in urine formation.
1. Filtration
2. Secretion
3. Selective Reabsorption
Explain how filtration occurs
The glomerulus receives blood from the efferent arteriole, the podocytes on the internal wall filter the solution, filtrate enters the glomerular capsule, the filtrate enters the renal tubule and becomes urine
State the name and location of cells that produce renin.
Juxtaglomerular cells produce Renin.
they are located in afferent arterioles.
Name the vessels in order through which blood flows in a kidney
Renal Atrery, anterior and posterior branches of the renal artery, segmental branches of the renal artery, interlobular arteries, arcuate atreries, interlobular arteries, efferent arteriole, peritubular capillaries, renal vein.
Outline the Volumetrics of urine formation
1. about 20% of cardiac output (5 liters per minute) flows into the left and right renal veins.
2. Blood vessels enter smaller vessels (1 liter per minute)
3. About 10% of volume is filtered through the glomerular walls
4. Filtrate flows through the renal tubules (100ml per minute)
How does the oblique passage of each ureter through the bladder wall form a functional valve.
it increases the length of the passageway and increases pressure in the urinary bladder to act as a passive valve
name the 6 parts of the bladder
apex, body, neck, fundus, internal urethral sphincter, external urethral sphincter
Why are men less likely to suffer from cystitis (urinary tract infections)
Their urethra is much longer preventing the entrance of bacteria all of the way up in to the bladder
Name the 3 sequential types of kidneys in mammals. (3 stages of developement)
pronephros, mesonephros, metanephros
Explain why the lining of the urinary bladder and urethra are considered to develop from the same endoderm as that of the terminal intestine
They are all derived from the primitive cloaca
If urine is dribbling from the umbilicus, what structure has failed to close?
The Urachus
list the 3 types of urinary incontinence
1. Neurogenic Incontinence-problem with the nerves that go to the bladder
2. Paradoxical incontinence- partial obstruction of the urethra
3. Non-neurogenic incontinence- not neurogenic or paradoxical
What are urinary stones called in the
1. Kidney
2. Ureter
3. urethra
1. renal calculi
2. ureteral calculi
3. urethral calculi
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