Studydroid is shutting down on January 1st, 2019

by gringo


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What do you call the consistent elevation of Blood pressure?
Hypertension
What is the mechanism of action for ACE inhibitors and what is the prototype drug?
MOA - blocks conversion of Angiotensin I to vasoconstrictor Angiotensin II
Prototype - Sextril (lisinopril)
What is the mechanism of action of ARBs and the prototype drug?
MOA - blocks vasoconstrictor and aldosterone producing effects of angiotensin II
Prototype - Diovan (valsartan)
What is the mechanism of action for beta blockers and what is the prototype drug?
MOA - blocks stimulation of beta 1 (myocardial) andrenergic receptors
Prototype - Tenormin (atenolol)
What is the mechanism of action of Calcium channel blockers and the prototype drug?
MOA - inhibits transport of calcium into myocardial and vascular smooth muscle cells, resulting in inhibition of excitation-contraction coupling and subsequent contraction
Prototype = Cardizem (diltiazem)
What is the mechanism of action for Cardiac glycoside and what is the prototype drug?
MOA - increases the force of myocardial contraction; prolongs refractory period of the AV node and decreases conduction through the SA and AV nodes
Prototype = Digoxin
What is the mechanism of action of nitrates and the prototype drug?
MOA - increases coronary blood flow by dilating cornary arteries and improving collateral flow to ishemic regions, produces vasodilation (venous greater than arterial)
Prototype = Nitroglycerin
What percentage of HTN cases hav unknown causes?
90%
What are complications of HTN?
- Heart - accelerated atherosclerosis, CAD, MI, HF
- Brain - CVA (cerebral vascular accident - stroke)
-Kidney - renal failure
- Retina - blindness
What are the three factors controlling BP?
1.  The Pump (cardiac output) - heart rate and stroke volume
2. The Pipes (peripheral vascular resistance) - vasodilation & vasoconstriction
3. The Water (Blood volume) fluid loss and retention
Name the Five antihypertensives.
- Ace-inhibitors
- ARB
- Beta-blockers
- Calcium channel blockers
- Diuretics
How is angiotensin II formed?
by angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)
What are the three effects of Angiotensin II?
- Vasoconstriction
- Release of ADH (anti-diuretic hormone - water retention)
- Release of aldosterone (sodium and water retention)
Angiotensin II raises BP by what two ways?
- raises PVR
- raises blood volume (water retention)
What constitutes heart failure?
when ventricles of the heart cannot generate adequate cardiac outpur to meet body's metabolic needs
What is cardiac output?
amount of blood pumped by each ventricle/minute (SV x HR)
What do you call the force of myocardial contraction (related to PVR - systolic BP)?
Contractility
What do you call pressure that the left ventricle must overcome in order to eject blood?
Afterload
What do you call the degree to which the myocardial fibers are stretched prior to systole?
Preload
What law says that the more the fibers are stretched, the more forcefully they will contract (but only to a certain limit)?
Frank-Starling Law
What is the ability to change the strength of myocardial contraction?
inotropic effect
What is the ability to change the heart rate?
Chronotropic effect
What is the ability to change the speed of electrical conduction?
Dromotropic effect
What effects do beta blockers and calcium channel blockers have?
negative inotropic effect and negative chronotropic effect
What effect does Epinephrine have?
positive chronotropic effect
What effect does norepinephrine have?
positive dromotropic effect
What are the three S&S of HF?
- LV does not sufficiently pump
- Fluid "backs up"
- fatigue, dyspnea, orthopnea, cough, crackles, pulmonary edema, peripheral edema, weight gain
What is the goal of medication to treat HF?
increase cardiac output
What are the four main classes of medications to treat HF?
- Ace Inhibitors
- Beta Blockers
- Cardiac Glycosides (Digoxin)
- Diuretics
What is the first line medication for HF?
Ace inhibitors
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