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The quantity of energy imparted by ionizing radiations to matter
Absorbed dose
the quantity obtained by multiplying the absorbed dose in tissue by the quality factor
Dose equivalent
A device used to measure radiation exposure to personnel
Various methods used to measure radiation exposure to personnel
A method of dosimetry consisting of a plastic holder with a radiation-sensitive film in a lightproof package
Film badge
A special radiographic diagnostic method in which a "live view" of the internal anatomy is possible
Effects of radiation that occur to the genes of reproductive cells
Genetic damage
The unit of absorbed dose imparted by ionizing radiations to matter.
Gray (Gy) 1 gray = 100 rad
anatomic areas where red blood cells are produced
Anatomic areas wehre white blood cells are produced
The maximum dose of radiation a person may receive in a given time period
Maximum permissible dose (MPD)
A method of dosimetry consisting of a charged ion chamber and electrometer, which can be read immediately to determine the amount of exposure
Pocket ionization chamber
The path that the x-rays follow as they leave the tube
Primary beam
commonly called scatter radiation, it is caused by interaction of the primary beam with objects in its path
Secondary radiation
The dose of radiation equivalent to the absorbed dose in tissue
Sievert (Sv) 1 sievert = 100 rem
Damage to the body induced by radiation that becomes manifest within the lifetime of the recipient
Somatic damage
A method of dosimetry consisting of a chamber containing special compounds that become electrically altered by ionizing radiation
Thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD)
List the tissues most sensitive to radiation-induced damage
bone, lymphatic, dermis, leukopoietic, hemopoietic, and epithelial.  also rapidly dividing cells
Which personnel are prohibited from assisting in radiographic procedures?
people under age 18 pregnant women
What organization is responsible for setting dose limits
The National Committee on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP)
What 2 types of tissue damage can occur from radiation exposure?
somatic, (cancer, cataracts, aplastic anemia, and sterility), and genetic (damage to the DNA, causes gene mutation).
What is the MPD for occupationally exposed personnel?
0.05 Sv/year
What are the 3 types of personal exposure dosimeters?  Describe each
1) Film badge - most common, has a plasitc holder which contains a radiation sensitive flim in lightproof packaging.  2)  Pocket ionization chamber - same size and shape as a pen and fits in a pocket.  can be read immediately.  3)  Thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) - contains special compounds that are electrically altered by ionizing radiation.  considered the more superior of the 3.
What are the 3 primary ways personnel are exposed to radiation during radiography?
1)  exposure to the primary beam.  2)  exposure from scatter radiation.  3)  exposure from "leakage" radiation from the x-ray tube housing.
what are the ways that personnel can reduce exposure during radiography?
avoid the primary beam, use correct collimation to prevent scatter radiation, use newer units (they have better housing for the primary beam tube).  avoid retakes.
What is the proper maintenance protocol for protective apparel?
aprons should be hung vertically over a round surface or laid flat to avoid cracks in the lead.  gloves should be placed on vertical holders so air can circulate to eliminate moisture accumulation.
What are the risks and safety measures necessary with the use of fluoroscopy?
never use fluorscopy in place of radiography, always wear protective apron, gloves & shields, keep the collimator beam as small as possible, never palpate the anatomic area that is being viewed while the machine activated.
Which of the following is a type of somatic damage caused by radiation? A. Gene mutation B. cataracts C. sterility D. none of the above
B.  Cataracts
Which statement is true? A.  the body's cells are all approximately equally sensitive to radiation. B.  Ionizing radiation only damages chromosomal material (DNA) within reproductive cells. C.  chemical restraint of veterinary patients is prohibiited by NCRP in the United States. D.  Genetic damage is not detectable until future generations are produced.
D.  Genetic damage is not detectable until future generations are produced.
What is the upper limit of exposure that an occupationally exposed individual may receive according to state and federal regulations? A. 0.5 Sv/year B. 100 rem/year C. 0.05 Sv/year D. 0.005 Sv/year
C. 0.05 Sv/year
All of the following are true except: A. animals cells are not as susceptible to damage from irradiation as human cells. B. radiation can affect the body's ability to produce red & white blood cells C. exposure to radiation can affect the lens by causing cataracts D. individuals younger than 18 years of age may not assist with animal restraint while radiographs are taken.
A. animals cells are not as susceptible to damage from irradiation as human cells.
A film badge: A. is a type of pocket ionization chamber B. is a type of dosimeter designed to monitor the actual amount of radiation received C. must always be worn on the collar D. should always be sjubmitted weekly to determine the level of exposure.
B. is a type of dosimeter disigned to monitor the actual amount of radiation received
What type of dosimeter can be stored for years, maintains its information, and can be reused? A. Pocket ionization chamber B. Collimator C. Thermoluminescent dosimeter D. Film badge
C. Thermoluminescent dosimeter
Which of the following statements is true? A. Veterinary personnel who restrain animals for radiographs are often exposed to the primary beam. B. Scatter radiation can be reduced by the collimator. C. Aluminum filtration helps to increase soft, less-penetrating x-rays, thus increasing the quality of the radiograph. D. Scatter radiation is produced by the primary beam interacting with the anode.
B. Scatter radiation can be reduced by the collimator.
Scatter depends on: A. The intensity of the beam B. the composition of the the structure being radiographed. C. Kilovoltage (kVp) level. D. All of the above.
D. All of the above.
The most conclusive method used to inspect lead-lined gloves and approns for cracks and defects is: A. taking a radiograph of it. B. holding it up to the sunlight or a bright light. C. Inspecting it manually. D. Both B & C are correct.
A. taking a radiograph of it.
What is the thickness of the lead-impregnated rubber lining protective apparel in veterinary radiography? A. 1 cm B. 10 mm C. 0.5 mm D. 0.5
C. 0.5 mm
what is the maximum dose of radiation exposure for a lifetime? (cummulitive)
10 mSv x age or 1 Rem x age
x of y cards