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Disease (?)

  • alteration of the body or its organs which adversely affects body functions

Clinical Signs [cls] (?)
  • observable, physical phenomenon associated with a condition thus indicative condition is present
Morbid (?)
  • abnormal or pathological
Disease Classification (4)
  • cause, species, system, course
4 levels of Disease Course & meanings (?)
  • peracute - quickly produces death
  • acute - quickly causes illness, severe cls & short course
  • subacute - btwn acute/peracute (most diseases fall here)
  • chronic - long-term, slow progression & long continuation of cls
Disease Classes (2 & meanings)

  • Non-infectious - no microbial organisms involved; not spread animal to animal

  • Infectious - spread via living organisms (exception: Parasites)

Non-infectious Categories (6)
  • congenital abnormalities
  • metabolic disorders
  • nutritional problems
  • physical injury
  • chemical injury
  • tumours
Nutritional Problems caused by? (4)
  • malnutrition
  • overnutrition
  • nutritional imbalance
  • nutritional deficiencies
Chemical Injury caused by? (2)
  • exogenous - outside body (toxins, poisons, medications)
  • endogenous - within body (allergic rx, shock)
Tumour/Neoplasm is?
  • defect of cell growth & differentiation
  • can be benign or malignant
  • individuals only 'in remission', NEVER cured
Benign (?)
  • growth localized, doesn't spread
Malignant (?)
  • metastases occurs & function of other tissues disrupted
Parapersis (?)
  • paralysis of only a certain body part/area
Infectious Categories (7)

  • prions

  • viruses

  • chlamydia

  • rickettsia

  • mycoplasma

  • bacteria

  • fungi

Hemo-Lymphatic System made of... (3)
  • Erythrocytes (RBC) - contain hemoglobin
  • Thrombocytes (platelets)
  • Leukocytes (WBC) - 5 types
Leukocyte Types (5)
  • Neutrophils
  • Eosinophils
  • Basophils
  • Monocytes
  • Lymphocytes
Haemotological System comprised of... (3)
  • bone marrow
  • spleen
  • circulatory system
Lymphatic System comprised of... (6)
  • bone marrow
  • thymus (only in young animals)
  • lymph nodes/glands
  • tonsils
  • peyer's patch
  • lymphatic vessels
Lymphatic Vessel info (2)
  • contains lymph fluid & some WBC's
  • relies on muscle activity to circulate fluid
WBC info (5)
  • produced in bone marrow according to genetics & hormones
  • can mature in bone marrow or in other tissues
  • only when fully mature can it act as part of the immune system
  • transfers from blood-lymph-blood circulation via thoracic duct
  • can be destroyed; if #'s drop to low, bone marrow increases production
Leukopenia (?)
  • when bone marrow is 'overworked' and becomes depleted of mature WBC's
  • bone marrow will start to release immature WBC's  & w/o help from antibiotics, death is possible
Leukemia (?)
  • leukocyte production becomes cancerous & produces abnormally developed, non-functional cells
  • death usually occurs through an infection (such as pneumonia)
  • if only lymphocytes are involved, called lymphosarcoma
reticuloendothelial system (RES) [?]
  • in many areas of the body, incl: spleen, lymph nodes, gut wall, liver, lungs, joints, skin, etc.
  • are tissues containing phagocytic cells (non-circulating WBC's) which engulf aged/damaged body cells & foreign material
Cls of Anemia (5)
  • pale mm
  • exercise intolerance
  • increased heartrate
  • increased respiratory rate
  • systolic murmurs (blood is thinner w low RBC's so leaks back thru valves)
Types of Anemia (7)
  • nutritional anemia
  • hypoplastic or aplastic anemia
  • bone marrow displacement
  • deficient hemoglobin synthesis
  • loss of abnormal cells
  • immune-mediated
  • intravenous fragmentation
Immune-Mediated Hemolytic Anemia (?)
  • occurs in dogs
  • RBC's become coated by antibodies & then phagocytic WBC's destroy them
  • dx: Coomb's Test (anti-globulin test)
  • tx: corticosteroids
Coomb's Test (anti-globulin test) [?]
  • can determine minor blood types
  • diagnose Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn
  • differentiate btwn different immune-mediated hemolytic anemias
Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn (?-3)
  • most common in humans & horses (mostly thoroughbreds & mules)
  • occurs when offspring has a diff. blood type from mother; 2nd offspring w diff type will cause antibody levels to rise high in mother and abortion can happen
  • when offspring ingests colostrum, antibodies from mother attack offspring's RBC's & produce hemolytic anemia
Cls of Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn (4)
  • lethargy
  • jaundice
  • dyspnea
  • pounding heart
  • NOTE: if RBC count drops below 2-4 x 10[12]/L, transfusion is required
Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA) ["Swamp Fever"]
  • viral disease of horses which persists in leukocytes for life
  • transmitted through all bodily fluid exchanges (mainly blood exchange)
  • also classified as 'infectious'
  • incubation of 1-3 wks but can be up to 3 mths
  • no tx or vaccine
  • reportable disease with enforced slaughter eradication program
  • mgmt: controlling insect vectors by draining wet areas, removing feces, indoors during fly season, repellents, smudge hills, bacteria pellets for dugouts. also sterilizing equip.
Cls Signs of EIA (6)
  • intermittant fever
  • depression
  • progressive weakness
  • weight loss
  • edema (mostly limbs)
  • progressive/transitory anemia
  • NOTE: virus remains in blood, but cls can disappear. Resurfaces randomly and death can occur during 'active' periods. Transmission can occur at any time
Testing for EIA [& reasons for: (4)]
  • dx by lab through Coggin's Test (immunodiffusion test)
  • foals not tested when <6 mths
  • ills animals isolated permanently
  • when positive twice (3-6 wks apart) and showing cls, animal MUST be destroyed
  • all EIA+ animals are reported to CFIA
  • all horses in contact with EIA+ in past 30 days must be tested as well
  • reasons for: market-ownership change-showing-export
Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC)
  • formation of thromboses (clots) primarily in capillaries (is 2ndary to a variety of disorders)
  • causes RBC lysing & haemorrhaging. skin shows petechiae (pinpoint haemorrhage) and may also have epistaxis
'Other' causes of Anemia (8)
  • anything causing spleen enlargement
  • parasites in RBC's
  • inside/outside bloodsucking parasites
  • toxin-producing bacteria (lyses RBC's)
  • plant hemolysins
  • chemical hemolysins
  • external haemorrhage due to trauma
  • internal haemorrhage due to trauma
von Willebrand Disease (?)
  • most common inherited bleeding disorder in dogs (seen in other species too)
  • mostly doberman, german sheps & goldens
  • affects coagulation & platelet function
  • lethal if homozygous
  • dx: buccal mucosal bleeding >4 mins, positive ELISA test, hx & cls
  • tx: blood & plasma transfusions, cryoprecipitate infusion or admin of desmopressin acetate during sx or trauma
  • positive dogs should NOT be bred & should avoid situations that could cause trauma
Cls of von Willebrand Disease (4)
  • vary according to gene penetrance
  • bruising to spontaneous haemorrhage
  • can see petechiae
  • longer bleeding times during: estrus, venipuncture, sx, etc.
Blood group factors by species (#'s)
  • cow -12
  • sheep - 7
  • horse - 9
  • pig - 16
  • dog - 8
  • cat - 3
Blood group typing used for: (3)
  • matching donor/recepient
  • substantiate pedigree of dogs/horses/cattle
  • identify breeding pair types to avoid hemolytic disease of the newborn (aka neonatal isoerythrolysis)
Neonatal Isoerythrolysis sensitization occurs thru... (3)
  • prior blood transfusion
  • pregnancy
  • cattle - by immunization
Replacement Fluid Types (3)
  • Isotonic Saline (0.89% NaCl)
  • 5& Dextrose (sugar in water)
  • Lactated Ringer's sol'n (balanced electrolyte sol'n)
  • NOTE: always check the expiry date and for signs of contamination!
Blood Transfusion Adverse Reactions (3 immediate, 3 later)
  • Uticaria (hives or rash)
  • Pyrexia (feverish)
  • Anaphylaxis (incls: pale mm, tachycardia, low body temp)
  • Later:
  • Hemoglobinemia
  • Hemoglobinuria
  • Jaundice
Immune Response Function
  • provide protection/immunity against harmful antigens (immunogens) which are large complex molecules not normally found in the body
Immune System can be divided into 2 in two diff. ways:
  • cell-mediated immunity (CMI) [ie. lymphocytes] & humoral immunity (ie. antibodies)
  • innate (inborn) immunity & adaptive (after birth) immunity
Innate immunity consists of: (4)
  • body temp
  • physical barriers (skin, mm)
  • chemical barriers (stomach acids, skin pH)
  • defence cells (phagocytes, neutrophils, macrophages)
If innate immune response unsuccessful:

  • antigen travels to regional lymph node where it will encounter helper T-cells (T-lymphocyte)

  • when a T-cell can bind it, T-cell sends out chemical/protein message for other cells like it to clone so they can defend body

4 types of T-cells & their functions: As well as 2 other roles for all T-cells:
  • helper - promote immune response
  • cytotoxic - attack virally infected, transplanted or cancer cells
  • suppressor - slow down/stop immune response (these clone slowly)
  • delayed hypersensitivity - role in allergies & chronic inflammation
  • 2 other roles: produce antibodies & cause B-lymphocytes to clone
Forms of Antibodies (5) & info:
  • IgG, IgM, IgA, IgE, IgD
  • Ig stands for immunoglobulin (another word for antibody)
  • each specific for one type of antigen & can only bind to one
How Immune System can be detrimental
  • transplant rejection reaction - attacking transplanted organ or tissue
  • immune-mediated disease - attacks self
  • immune deficiency disorder - it doesn't attack an antigen
  • allergy - localized area of over-reaction to allergens
  • anaphylaxis - system-wide over-reaction to allergens (can cause shock & possibly death)
4 types of immunopathological reactions:
  • 1: anaphylaxis/allergy
  • 2: antibody-mediated cytotoxicity
  • 3: immune complex disease OR arthus reaction
  • 4: cell-mediated immunity OR delayed-type hypersensitivity
Other immune deficiency diseases:
  • congenital (can be inherited) [ie. cyclic neutropenia in collies, inability to produce certain antibody classes, combined (both humoral & CMI) immunodeficiency]
  • acquired (contracted after birth) [ie. FeLV, FIV, FIP, Canine Distemper, Bovine Leukemia and when young fail to ingest colostrum they may have acquired deficiency until their own system kicks in-birth to 12-16 wks]
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