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Name the anatomical components of the urinary system
two kidneys, two ureters, the urinary bladder, and the urethra
Name three functions of the urinary system
remove waste products from the blood, regulate the composition of the blood, and produce regulatory enzymes
Combining word forms for kidney (2)
nephr/o- 
ren/o-
5 functions of the kidney
1. urine production
2. maintain homeostasis
3. acid-base balance
4. fluid-electrolyte balance
5 hormone production
How do the kidneys maintain the acid-base balance of a pH range of ____
by eliminating bicarbonate and hydrogen ions in urine

7.35-7.45
the fluid electrolyte balance is under _____ control
hormonal
diuresis
excess water, more urine is formed
oliguria
insufficient water, less urine is formed
anuria
deficiency in water, no urine is formed
Name 5 regulatory hormones of the urinary system
1. renin
2. antidiueretic hormone (ADH)
3. erythropoietin
4. prostaglandins
5. aldosterone
erythropoietins role...
increases RBC production if hypoxic
prostaglandins role...
help maintain renal perfusion
renins role...
help increase BP if it drops
(does this through the renin-angiotensin system)
ADH and aldosterones role...
help body to maintain fluid and electrolyte balance
The kidneys lie (inside/outside) the peritoneum
outside (lie retroperitoneally)
The kidneys are embedded in ___ and tissue which ____ the kidney
perirenal fat, protects
Which kidney is more cranial in domestic animals

(exception)
right

(pig)
The kidneys are paired, reddish-brown, ___ -shaped organs except in horses they are ____ shaped and in cattle are ____
bean, heart, lobulated
6 components of the kidney
1. capsule
2. hilus
3. renal pelvis
4. renal cortex
5. renal medulla
6. renal crest
capsule
thin connective tissue which surrounds the kidney
renal cortex
outer portion of the kidney
The depression/indentation in the kidney where the renal arteries, and nerves enter and renal veins, ureter and lymphatic vessels leave is called the ____
hilus
The ______ (just inside the hilus) is the location where _____ collects (from the _____) and joins to becomes the _____
renal pelvis, urine, (collecting tubules), ureter
The renal ___ lies on the outside of the kidney while the renal ____ lies on the inside
cortex (outside), medulla (inside)
renal medulla
-appearance...
inner layer of kidney
-striated due to collecting tubules
The renal vein that exits the kidney leads to the ___
caudal vena cavae
renal crest
ridge that projects into the renal pelvis into which the collecting tubules empty
bovine kidneys are...
and have...
lobulated and don't have a renal pelvis or crest
calyces = branches from each lobe and join to form the ureter  
porcine kidneys have...
calyces which funnel fluid into the renal pelvis
Nerve supply of the kidney
-supplied by sympathetic nerves from the ANS
-(not necessary for funtion, can rely using other controls)
Blood supply of the kidney
1. renal artery --> hilus --> afferent glomerular arterioles (AGA)
2. AGA --> glomerular capillary(GC) network around the glomerulus
3. GCs filter out some plasma from blood 
4. efferent arteriole leaves glomerulus and surrounds the nephron (form capillary networks(CN) around tubules and LOH)
5. CN --> veins --> renal vein --> hilus --> caudal vena cava
 
The _____ are narrow muscular tubes which run caudally towards the ____
ureters, bladder
The urine formed by the nephrons leaves the kidney through a single ureter at the ____
hilus
How do the ureters enter the bladder and why?
at an oblique angle, to act like a valve
The ureter walls are made of ______, ______and _____
-outer fibrous
-middle smooth muscle (allows persistalsis)
-transitional eptithelium (allows expansion/stretching)
Urine is pushed along the tube by ______
peristalsis
The urinary bladder is a ____ ____ _____ made up of _____ _____, with a ______ at the neck
hollow, smooth muscle (runs obliquely circular), transitional epithelium, sphincter of skeletal muscles (voluntary control of urination)
Empty vs. full bladder
E - almost insde the pelvis, thick walls
F - pear shaped, extends cranially, thin walls
_____ is the expulsion of urine from the bladder controlled by the urethralis muscle
micturition
The ______ conveys urine from the bladder to the outside through the pelvic cavity
urethra
Females have a ____, _____ urethra than males
shorter, straighter
The urethra opens into the floor of the vagina in females which is known as a ___
vestibule
____ are more prone to urinary calculi (stones)
males
In males the urethra opens into the penis and becomes one with the ___ _____
vas deferens
The penis conveys both urine and _____
semen
What is the functional unit in the kidney
nephron
List the components of a nephron 
(5 in order)
renal corpuscule (glomerulus, and Bowman’s capsule), proximal convoluted tubule, loop of Henle, distal convoluted tubule, collecting tubules/ducts (calyxes)
The number of _____ varies between species
nephrons
The ______ ______ collects fluids from the glomerulus
Bowman’s capsule
The proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) reabsorbs 5 things
1. water
2. salt (sodium and chloride)
3. bicarbonate
4. glucose
5. amino acids
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