Studydroid is shutting down on January 1st, 2019

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Triglycerides comprise what percentage of the lipids in the body?
90%
What is a normal level for triglycerides?
<150 mg/dl
Where is cholesterol synthesized?
in the liver
What do you call high levels of cholesterol in the blood that contributes to atherosclerosis (CAD)?
Hypercholesterolemia
What are lipoproteins made up of?
protein + lipid compounds
What does HDL (high density lipoprotein) or grood cholesterol do?
transports cholesterol from tissues to liver, forms bile and is excreted in feces
What does LDL (low density lipoprotein) or bad cholestrol do?
transports cholesterol from liver to tissues
What does VLDL (very low density lipoprotein) eventually become?
LDL
High lipid levels are a risk factor for what five conditions?
CAD
MI
CVA
HTN
PVD
What are four lifestyle changes for high cholesterol?
1. weight loss
2. exercise
3. diet:  decrease cholesterol (<300 mg/day) and saturated fats: increase soluble fiber (oats, apples, beans, broccoli)
4. Stop tobacco use (smoking and chewing) 
What do you call medications to treat hyperlipidemia?
Antihyperlipidemics
What is hyperlipidemia?
high lipid levels in the blood
Name the three classes of antihyperlipidemics?
1. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors
2. Bile Acid Sequestrants
3. Nicotinic Acid
HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors are also known as what?
Statins
Bile Acid Sequestrants are also known as what?
Resins
Nicotinic Acid is also known as what?
Niacin or Vitamin B3
What is the protogype drug for HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors?
Lipitor (atorvastatin)
What are the indications of use for Lipitor (atorvastatin)?
to lower abnormally hgih blood lipid levels when lifestyle changes fail
What is the MOA of Lipitor (atorvastatin)?
inhibits cholesterol production in the liver by interfering with an enzyme used to synthesize cholesterol
What is the effect of Lipitor (atorvastatin)?
lowers LDLs, triglycerides, total cholesterol and may increase HDLs
What is the first line therapy to lower blood lipid levels?
Lipitor (atorvastatin)
What time of day does the liver make cholesterol?
evening
What are the contraindications of Lipitor (atorvastatin)?
- pregnancy
- breastfeeding
- active disease
What are the GI side effects of statins (HMP-CoA Reductase Inhibitors) Lipitor (atorvastatin)?
NV, abd cramps, constipation, diarrhea, flatus, heartburn, elevated liver enzymes
What are the MS side effects of statins (HMP-CoA Reductase Inhibitors) Lipitor (atorvastatin)?
rhabdomyolysis - life threatening breakdown of skeletal muscle tissue
List six nursing implications of statins (HMP-CoA Reductase Inhibitors) Lipitor (atorvastatin).
- assess for c/o muscle pain and weakness
- assess for etoh abuse and liver disease
- administer with evening meal
- monitor liver functions
- Monitor CK (creatine phosphokinase)
- monitor LDL, total cholesterol, triglycerides and HDL 
What are five patient teachings for statins (HMP-CoA Reductase Inhibitors) Lipitor (atorvastatin)?
- report muscle pain, tenderness or weakness especially if acompanied by fever or malaise
- report pregnancy
- avoid large amts of grapefruit juice
- avoid etoh
- take with food to decrease GI sx
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