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Renal Hilum
the center of the kidney
Fibrous capsule
innermost layer around the kidney
perineal fat capsule
provides cushioning and protection
renal fascia
dense fibrous connective tissue
anchors kidneys to the body wall
renal cortex
outer/superficial layer, lighter in color
renal medulla
divided into medullary pyramids by renal columns
medullary pyramids
triangles pointing toward the calyces
lobes
sections of the medulla
pelvis
the innermost chamber that creates a funnel to the ureter
major calyces
2-4 per kidney, major collecting pools for the urine/filtrate
minor calyces
amaller collecting pools closer to the medulla
renal blood supply pathway
renal  artery -- segmental --interlobar -- arcuate -- cortical radiate  -- afferent arteriole -- glomularus -- efferent arteriole -- peritubular capillaries (nephrons or vasa recta)  reverse
nephron
filtration anatomy
glomerulus
a tuft of capillaries within the glomerular capsule
renal tubule
glomerular capsule and tube following
glomerular capsule or renal corpuscle
cup shaped end of the tubule wrapped around the glomerulus
renal corpuscle
long tube that dips into the renal medulla
podocytes
  • specialized epithelial cells
  • lines the outside of capillaries
  • form a mesh with filtration slits
foot processes
extensions of the podocyts that interdigitate withone another
filtration slits
spaces created by the interdigitation of the foot processes
filtrate
plasma without proteins
filtration membrane components
fenestrated epithelium - inner layer
podocytes - filtration slits
basement membrane - holds them together
proximal convoluted tubule
most reabsorption of everything
  • all water, amino acids, sugar
  • 65% of water
  • 90% bicarbonate
  • 60% chloride
  • 55% potassium
loop of Henle
descending limb
  • thin segment
  • highly permeable to water
ascending limb
  • most thick segment
  • permeable to salt
thin segment
permeable to water and not to solute
thick segment
permeable to solute and not water
distal convoluted tubule
reabsorbs the remainder of the water and salt
  • absorbtion regulated by hormones
  • ADH - increases water
  • PTH - increases calcium
  • aldosterone - increase of Na to cause a rise in blood pressure, blood volume
  • atrial natriuretic peptide - causes decrease in Na to cause a drop in blood pressure if too high
collecting ducts
dilute urine is first present, ADH inserts aquaporins here to regulate according to body's needs
Cortical nephrons
average nephrons that reside completely in the cortex
juxtamedullary nephrons
nephrons that have a loop of Henle that descends almost to the medulla of the kidney
juxtaglomerular apperatus
a group of cells that measures pressure and chemical composition of the filtrate
Granular (JG) cells
inside the srteriole wall, contain granukes of renin and detect pressure - vasoreceptors
Glomerular filtration
hydrostatic pressure to push things through a filtration membrane
net filtration pressure
= glomular filtration rate
  • this can be regulated and altered
  • relies on total suface area and filtration membrane permeability
glomerular hydrostatic pressure
the rate that fluid is forced through the capillary
colloid osmotic pressure
the pressure of fluid trying to flow back into the capillary
= much lower pressure
capsular hydrostatic pressure
fluid coming back into the capillary; also balances the hydrostatic pressure coming out
Glomerular filtration rate
determined in part by the net filtration pressure
= how much filtrate is produced
Renal autoregulation
intrinsic controls
- within the kidneys
myogenic mechanism
pressure sensing intrinsic control
tubuloglomerular mechanism
solute concentration sensing
- intrinsic control
Extrinsic controls
sympathetic controls
- the body as a whole
Renin-angiotensin mechanism
  • increases Na+ absorption
  • increases blood pressure
angiotensinogen
glomerular cells release renin which catalyzes angiotensinogen
angiotensin I and II
converted from angiotensinogin
Tubular reabsorbtion
  • NaK pump
  • Glucose - secondary coupled with sodium
  • Water - passive, osmosis
obligatory water reabsorption
we reabsorb 95 - 100% of water through the PCT (65) and DCT (30-35)
aquaporins
  • permeable only to water
  • added to the DCT as needed for reabsorption
tubular secretion
taking things from the cappilaries back to the tubule
Urea
uric acid
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