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beliefs or attitudes about the worth of a person, object, idea or action. Learned through observation or experience
a small group of values held by an individual
value set
the organization of a person's values using a system of relative importance
value system
(aka opinions) conclusions that person accept are true
feelings towards a person, object, or idea
usually last over a long time, where beliefs may last briefly
Name 2 value transmission
personal values
professional values
taken from society and other influences and made as your own
personal values
acquired during socialization into your career, from experience,peers, mentors, etc.
professional values
name 2 values clarification
clarifying the nurses values
clarifying the client's values
involves self examination regarding your values about life,death, health and illness
clarifying the nurses values
nurses need to identify the patients' personal values in order to plan for their care
clarifying the client's values
expected standards of moral behavior or the beliefs or a person/group or the study or either
ethics applied to human life
ex. stem cell research
personal standards of what is right and wrong in conduct, character, or attitude
learning to tell the difference between right and wrong
begins in childhood
moral development
theories that help the nurse comprehend disturbing client/healthcare issues
moral framework
3 types of moral frameworks
  • consequence based-includes utilitarianism
  • prinicpales based (deontological)
  • relationships based (caring)
look at the outcome of an action when determining whether the action is right or wrong
focus is on the issue of fairness
consequence based
a form of consequence theory
views as an act as good when it brings the greatest amount of good and the least amt of harm, for the greatest amt of people
emphasized individual rights,duties and obligations
morality of the action is not determined by outcomes but by objectivity
priniciples based (deontological) theories
emphasized courage, generosity, commitment, and nurturing and maintaining relationships
actions are based on caring and responsibilty
releationships based (caring) theories
statements about broad,general, philosophical concepts
moral prinicples
specific guidelines for actions
moral rules
the right to make one's own decisions
to do no harm
doing good
being faithful to agreements and promises
telling the truth
answerable to yourself and others for your own actions
specific accountability or liability w/ the performance of duties of a particular role
a formal statement of a group ideals and values, serves as a standard for their professional actions
international, and states have these
nursing code of ethics
2 origins of ethical problems of nursing
  • social/technological changes
  • conflicting loyalties and obligations
advances in technology and changes in our social environment bring forth ethical issues that need addressing
social/technological changes
nurses may experience conflicting feelings based on their personal values
conflicting loyalties and obligations
should be rational, systemic decision based on ethical prinicples and codes rather than emotions
making ethical decisions
methods to help nurses deal w/ organizational or social constaints that impact their ethical practice
strategies to enhance ethical decisions and practice
disease that carries a social stigma due to its assocation w/ drug use and sexual behavior
controversial due to the issue of sanctitiy of life vs. autonomy  over your own body
many ethical issues can arise from viewpoints regarding transplant
organ transplantation
4 types of end of life issues
  • advanced directives
  • euthanasia/assisted suicide
  • termination of life sustaining treatment
  • withdrawing or withholding foods/fluids
extremely useful in resolving end of life dilemmas when a pt. cannot express their wishes
all 50 states have these
advanced directives
actions that bring about a patients death directly with or without pt. consent
active euthanasia
giving the pt. the means to kill themselves if they request it
assissted suicide
removing any treatments that prolongs or sustains life
termination of life sustaining treatment
foods and fluids must be witheld if the administration of them is more harmful than withholding them
providing foods/fluids is considered a moral duty
withdrawing/withholding foods and fluids
should they be dispersed equally, fairly or given to pts. that will get the greatest benefit
allocation of scarce health resources
nurses are obligated to respects clients privacy and confidentiality
management of personal health information
the act of expressing and defending the cause of another
to protect clients' rights
informs the clients their right
provides info that enables them to make informed decisions
the advocates role
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