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Which steps should be taken in the event of airway fire?
1.  Stop gas flow
2.  Extinguish with saline
3.  Remove burning material
4.  Mask ventilate     
Visualized structures in Mallampati I patient
Soft palate, fauces, uvula, tonsillar pillars
Visualized structures in Mallampati II patient
Soft palate, fauces, uvula
Visualized structures in Mallampati III patient
Soft palate, base of uvula
Visualized structures in Mallampati IV patient
Hard palate only
What is the area of choice for emergency placement of a surgical airway?
The cricothyroid membrane
Describe the proper placement of the laryngeal mask airway?
The tip rests against the upper esophageal sphincter, the sides of the mask rest against the pyriform fossae, the aperture aligns with the rima glottis.
How much positive pressure can be delivered with an LMA in place?
Up to 20 cm H2O
What is the maximum LMA intracuff pressure?
60 cm H2O
How should difficulties encountered during rapid sequence induction with subsequent desaturation be managed?
Application of gentle positive pressure ventilation (not to exceed 25 cm H2O) with continued cricoid pressure
By how much does endotracheal intubation reduce anatomic dead space?
50%
What causes bradycardia during laryngoscopy?
Stimulation of cranial nerve X (vagus)
Is intubation guaranteed to prevent aspiration?
No
What FiO2 will be produced by a nasal cannula oxygen flow rate of 1 L/min?
21-24%
What FiO2 will be produced by a nasal cannula oxygen flow rate of 2 L/min?
23-28%
What FiO2 will be produced by a nasal cannula oxygen flow rate of 3 L/min?
27-34%
What FiO2 will be produced by a nasal cannula oxygen flow rate of 4 L/min?
31-38%
What FiO2 will be produced by a nasal cannula oxygen flow rate of 5-6 L/min?
32-44%
What is the initial recommended maneuver in a "can't intubate, can't ventilate" situation?
Consider/attempt LMA
What thyromental distance is predictive of a difficult intubation?
< 4 cm
What is the safest method of induction and airway management in the patient with Ludwig's angina?
Preliminary tracheostomy under local anesthesia
What is the most common permanent airway injury associated with endotracheal intubation?
Dental damage
What are the most common temporary injuries associated with endotracheal intubation?
Sore throat and dysphagia
Adequate ventilation through a cricothyrotomy with a 14 gauge intravenous catheter requires
100% oxygen at 50 psi (jet ventilation)
LMA size 1
Neonates up to 5 kg
LMA size 1.5
Infants 5-10 kg
LMA size 2
Children 10-20 kg
LMA size 2.5
Children 20-30 kg
LMA size 3
Children > 30 kg - small adults
What is the earliest manifestation of endotracheal tube migration to an endobronchial position?
Increased peak airway pressures
What is a commonly used visual laryngeal classification system?
Cormack-Lehane
How does arterial carbon dioxide tension change during apneic oxygenation?
It rises approximately 6 mm Hg during the 1st minute.

It rises 3-4 mm Hg each additional minute.
What will a glossopharyngeal nerve block anesthetize?
The posterior third of the tongue, uvula, soft palate, and pharynx.  It inhibits the afferent limb of the gag reflex.
What does continued deflation of the anesthesia reservoir bag with a closed APL during face mask ventilation suggest?
Improper mask seal/technique
Generation of high circuit pressure with minimal chest movement and breath sounds during mask ventilation suggests what?
Airway obstruction
What does the LMA protect against?
Pharyngeal secretions (but not gastric regurgitation)
When should an LMA be removed?
When the patient has regained airway reflexes
How much air should be added to the tracheal tube cuff?
The least amount necessary to create a seal and minimize pressure on the mucosa
Where should the cuff of a TT be felt?
At the sternal notch
How do you prevent unintentional esophageal intubation?
1.  Direct visualization of the tip passing the vocal cords
2.  Careful auscultation for bilateral lung sounds and absence of gastric gurgling
3.  Analysis of exhaled gas (+ ETCO2, most reliable)
4.  Chest radiography
5.  Use of fiberoptic bronchoscopy
How is bronchial intubation diagnosed?
1.  Unilateral breath sounds
2.  Unexpected hypoxia with pulse oximetry (unreliable with high O2 concentrations)
3.  Inability to palpate the TT cuff in the sternal notch
4.  Decresed breathing-bag compliance (high PIP)
How does negative pressure pulmonary edema form?
Struggling against generation of large negative intrathoracic pressure (during laryngospasm)
How many cartilages make up the larynx?  Name them
Nine; thyroid, cricoid, epiglottic and (in pairs): arytenoid, corniculate, and cuneiform
What innervates the mucous membranes of the nose?
The opthalmic and maxillary divisions of the trigeminal (V) nerve.  (Anterior ethmoidal, sphenopalatine)
What innervates the superior and inferior surfaces of the hard and soft palates?
Trigeminal nerve (V), palatine division
What innervates the anterior 2/3 of the tongue?
Trigeminal nerve (V), mandibular division
What innervates the posterior 1/3 of the tongue?
Glossopharyngeal nerve (IX)
What provides sensation of taste to the tongue?
Facial (VII) anterior and glossopharyngeal (IX) posterior nerves
What innervates the roof of the pharynx, tonsils and undersurface of the soft palate?
Glossopharyngeal nerve (IX)
What provides sensation to the airway below the epiglottis?
Vagus nerve (X).  External superior laryngeal (motor) and internal superior laryngeal (sensory) are between the epiglottis and the vocal cords.
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