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relatively permanent change in an organism’s behavior due to experience
Associative Learning
learning that two events occur together (a response and its consequences)
Classical Conditioning
a neutral stimulus that signals an unconditioned stimulus begins to produce a response that anticipates and prepares for the unconditioned stimulus
Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)
stimulus that unconditionally--automatically and naturally--triggers a response
Unconditioned Response (UCR)
unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus
Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response
Conditioned Response (CR)
learned response to a previously neutral conditioned stimulus
-the initial stage in classical conditioning -the phase associating a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus comes to elicit a conditioned response -in operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response
-diminishing of a CR -in operant conditioning, when a response is no longer reinforced
Spontaneous Recovery
reappearance, after a rest period, of an extinguished CR
tendency for stimuli similar to CS to elicit similar responses
in classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a CS and other stimuli that do not signal a UCS
Operant Conditioning
type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by reinforcement or diminished if followed by punishment
Law of Effect
Thorndike’s principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely
Operant Behavior
-operates (acts) on environment -produces consequences
Respondent Behavior
-occurs as an automatic response to stimulus -behavior learned through classical conditioning
B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)
-elaborated Thorndike’s Law of Effect -developed behavioral technology
Skinner Box
chamber with a bar or key that an animal manipulates to obtain a food or water reinforcer
any event that strengthens the behavior it follows
operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer approximations of a desired goal
Primary Reinforcer
innately reinforcing stimulus (satisfies a biological need)
Conditioned Reinforcer
stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with primary reinforcer (secondary reinforcer)
Continuous Reinforcement
reinforcing the desired response each time it occurs
Partial (Intermitent) Reinforcement
-reinforcing a response only part of the time -results in slower acquisition -greater resistance to extinction
Fixed Ratio (FR)
-reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses -faster you respond the more rewards you get
Variable Ratio (VR)
reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses (like gambling, fishing)
Fixed Interval (FI)
-reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed -response occurs more frequently as the anticipated time for reward draws near
Variable Interval (VI)
reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals (like pop quiz)
aversive event that decreases the behavior that it follows
Cognitive Map
mental representation of the layout of one’s environment
Latent Learning
learning that occurs, but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it
Overjustification Effect
the effect of promising a reward for doing what one already likes to do
Intrinsic Motivation
Desire to perform a behavior for its own sake and to be effective
Extrinsic Motivation
Desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishments
Observational Learning
learning by observing others
process of observing and imitating a specific behavior
Prosocial Behavior
positive, constructive, helpful behavior
Mirror Neurons
frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so
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