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what attaches the soft palate to the tongue?
glossopalatine (palatoglossal) arches
what attaches the soft palate to the lateral wall of pharynx?
pharyngopalatine (palatopharyngeus) arches
where are palate salivary glands?
posterolateral zone
what type of tissue are palatine tonsils?
lymphoid tissue
where are palatine tonsils found?
between the palatoglossal and palatophayngeus arches
what are the five muscles of the soft palate?
tensor veli palatini, levator veli palatini, palatoglossus, palatopharyngeus, muscularis uvulae
tensor veli palatini function
tenses soft palate and opens mouth of auditory tube during swallowing/yawning.
the tendon of tensor veli palatini wraps around?
pterygoid hamulus
levator veli palatini function
elevates soft palate
palatoglossus function
draws soft palate down to the tongue, raises tongue, closes oropharyngeal isthmus
palatopharyngeus function
elevates pharynx,pulls palatopharyngeal arches toward midline, closes nasopharynx
muscularis uvuale function
elevates uvula
what innervates the muscles of the soft palate except for 1?
phayngeal plexus of vagus, except for tensor veli palatini innervated by V3
blood supply of soft palate
greater and lesser palatine arteries, ascending palatine artery, palatine artery
what is in the anterior zone of the palatal submucosa?
what is in the posterior zone of the palatal submucosa?
mucous glands
what is a bifid uvula?
results from failure of complete fusion of the palatine shelves
what is the tongue motor innervation?
all tongue muscles are innervated by hypoglossal nerve EXCEPT palatoglossus muscle is vagus
what are extrinisic tongue muscles? (definition)
originate on structures away from the tongue and insert onto it causing tongue movement
what are the extrinsic tongue muscles?
genioglossus, hyoglossus, palatoglossus, styloglossus
function of genioglossus?
sticks out tongue
function of hyoglossus?
depresses side of tongue
function of palatoglossus?
elevates the tongue
function of styloglossus?
elevates and retracts tongue
what is the innervation of the extrinsic tongue muscles?
all are innervated by CN 12 except for palatoglossus (CN X)
what are the intrinisc tongue muscles?
longitudinal, transverse, and vertical
what is the innervation of the intrinsic tongue muscles
CN 12
are intrinsic tongue muscles attached to bone?
what does the tongue develop from?
2nd and 3rd brachial arches, copula, lateral lingual swellings, tuberculum impar
arteries of the tongue
lingual artery, ascending pharyngeal artery
vein of the tongue
veins drain into the internal jugular vein
the tip of the tongue drains into
the submental lymph nodes
the remaining anterior 2/3 of tongue drains into
submandibular and deep cervical lymph nodes on both sides
posterior 1/3 of tongue drains into
(retropharyngeal) then deep cervical lymph nodes on both sides
what neurotransmitter inhibits the mycocardium
does skeletal or cardiac muscle have more mitochondria and more myoglobin?
cardiac muslce
what type of muscle has large t tubules?
cardiac muslce
what type of muscle has a more developed sarcoplasmic reticulum?
skeletal muscle
what is compensatory hypertrophy
cardiac fibers respond to increased demand by increasing fiber size
is cardiac muscle striated?
what filament covers the actin binding site during resting state?
what filament attaches to tropomyosin?
what are the two parts of myosin?
light and heavy meromyosin
what is light meromyosin?
makes up the rod like backbone of myosin filaments
what is heavy meromyosin?
forms shorter globular lateral cross bridges that link to actin binding sites during contraction
what is endomysium?
fine CT sheath surrounding an individual skeletal muscle fiber
what is perimysium?
fibrous sheath surrounding a bundle of muscle fibers
what is epimysium?
external CT sheath surrounding an entire muscle
what are the compartments that are in myofibrils called?
place sarcomere, myofibers, myofibrils in order from smallest to largest
sarcomere, myofibril, myofiber
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