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What is the number of micro-organisms contaminating an object and is sometimes also known as bioload or microbial load?
What items are instruments and materials that penetrate the skin, mucous membranes, or bone?
What are chemical dyes used to determine whether the conditions required for sterilization are met?
Chemical indicators
What items are instruments, equipment, or materials that do not normally penetrate or contact mucous membranes but which are exposed to splatter, spray, or splashing of blood, or are touched by contaminated hands?
CO's and OIC's must develop and implement universal protocols of infection control strategies to prevent transmission of HBV and other pathogens of what type?
Bloodborne pathogens
A surgical entry into the tissues, cavities, organs, or repair of major traumatic injuries is what type of procedure?
Bacteria, fungi, viruses, and bacterial spores are classified as what?
Infection control involves taking steps to prevent the spread of what?
Infectious agents
An infection originating in the environment of a hospital or freestanding dental treatment facility is a what?
Nosocomial infection
What is the propagation and growth of micro-organisms or living tissue cells in or on a nutrient medium?
The ability of HBV to survive in the environment, coupled with its high titers in the blood, makes it an excellent model for what practices?
Infection control
The prevalence of serologic markers for HBV in dental health care personnel has increased dramatically in the United States of the past several years. Each year, approximately how many health care workers become infected with the virus?
Dental items are classified in one of three ways, based on the pathways through which cross contamination may occur and the location and technique of instrument use. They are what?
Critical, semicritical, or noncritical
The presence or reasonably expected presence of blood or other potentially infectious material on an item or surface is said to be what?
What are pathogenic micro-organisms that are present in human blood and capable of causing disease in humans?
Bloodborne pathogens
What items are instruments, equipment, or materials that frequently contact mucous membrane but cannot be sterilized due to their design or inability to withstand heat?
The use of rubber, plastic, paper, foil, or other fluid resistant materials to cover surfaces and protect them from contamination is known as what technique?
Barrier technique
What test is a diagnostic test of a prevacuum sterilizer's ability to remove air from the chamber and prevent air reentrant?
What are equipment or methods which isolate or remove bloodborne pathogens from the workplace?
Engineering controls
The CDC estimates that HBV infection in health care personnel actually results in some 600 hospitalizations and how many deaths annually?
What is the destruction or inhibition of most viruses and bacteria while in their active growth phase?
Chemical disinfection
What is the process of preventing the access of micro-organisms?
What is an unprocessed biological monitor from the same lot as the test monitor and, when cultured, serves as a control by verifying the viability of the unexposed organisms?
Biological control
What is a bacterial endospore test designed to assess whether sterilization has actually occurred?
Biological monitor
CO's and OIC's must appoint who in writing to assist in implementing the infection control program?
Infection Control Officer (ICO)
Approximately what percent of patients with HIV or HBV show no symptoms and may be unaware of their infectious disease state?
What is a process which uses steam heat under pressure for sufficient length of time to kill all forms of micro-organisms?
Saturated Steam Sterilization
Commands must document infection control training sessions with names of persons attending ond conducting, dates, and a summary of the contents of the training and must maintain these records for at least how many years?
At the beginning of each workday when preparing the DTR, flush each of the unit water lines and hoses for at least how long, beginning with the cup filler and cuspidor even if their use is not anticipated?
1 minute
When inhaled, particles less than how many microns in diameter can penetrate directly to the terminal bronchioles and alveoli of the lungs?
The same infection control practices must be used with all patients regardless if they show symptoms or not and this approach is known as what?
Universal precautions
Which instruction mandates that all active duty health care personnel receive HIV testing on an annual basis during each calendar year?
The quantity of materials or supplies required to treat a single patient is a what?
Unit dose
Since washing increases the porosity of gloves up to what percent, repeated use of a single pair of gloves is not permitted?
What directs continuous review and upgrade of the sterilization and infection control syllabus at the Naval School of Dental Assisting and Technology (NSDAT) for the dental technician, basic "A" school?
Commands must use what, through the appropriate chain of command, to identify total resources required to meet the guidelines of this directive and those of OSHA and EPA?
A period of up to how long often exsists between the time a person becomes infected with a virus and the time when laboratory test can detect the antigens or antibodies to it?
Several weeks
What must have solid side shields to provide maximum protection?
Eyewear or goggles
All personnel assigned duties in sterilization areas or functioning as surgical assistants will receive additional documented training in sterilization and what other techniques?
What particles can remain airborne long after a procedure is completed, making it so staff and patients must not eat or drink in the DTRs?
Having patients brush their teeth or rinse with a mouthwash before treatment reduces the microbial concentration of their oral flora. Three 10-second rinses will temporarily reduce a patient's microbial count by up to what percent?
The ICO must review and revise all infection control policies and procedures at least how often?
Commands must review and upgrade their staff and new employee orientation presentations as directed. As a minimum, all personnel will receive initial training within how many days of reporting onboard at at least annually thereafter?
The ICO must include a briefing in the command orientation for all new employees at staff on infection control policies and infectious disease hazards in the workplace per what instruction?
Since what infection is presently the standard model for infection control practices and is more infectious than HIV, those established procedures known to prevent the spread of it serve as the basis for universal precautions?
When preparing the DTR after each patient, remove the handpience, lubricate, and run for how long?
30 seconds
The ICO must ensure that infection control functions are addressed at least how often as part of the command quality assurance program?
What is an acceptable method of cleaning and disinfecting?
Dental procedures usually generate aerosol particles that average how many microns in diameter?
The process which destroys all types and forms of micro-organisms is called what?
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