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Newtons 2nd law
f=ma
kinematics
vf=vo+at

Δx=vo+ (1/2) at2

Δx= (vf+v0/2)t

v2f=v20 + 2aΔx



energy
E=PE+KE=mgh+1/2 mv2

Gravity
F=(Gm1m2/r2)
Work
Power=ΔE/t
W=ΔE
w=FΔx
Friction
Fk=ukFN
Torque
T=force x distance
Centripetal Acceleration
ac=v2/r
momentum
p=mv


inelastic conservation:

m1v1+ m2v2=(m1+m2)vf
Buoyancy
FBfluidgVsubmerged
Pressure
P=force/area
Bernoulli's Equation
P+(1/2)ρv2+pgh=consstant
Continuity Equation
fluids
area*velocity=constant
Electric Field in parallel plate capacitor
E= V/d = voltage / dist.
Electric Work and Potential Energy
W=ΔU=q2ΔV
V=kq1/r12= elec potential
Electric Potential Energy or Force
U or F = kq1q2/r (J) or (Nm2/C)

Neg sign mean attraction
Capacitance
C=Q/V=charge/voltage

C=ε0A/d
A=area of plate
d=distance of seperation
E Feild magnitude
E=V/d=Volts/ distance
Force of a magnetic feild
F=qE

can be used to find acceleration
potential difference for the drop in electric potential
ΔV=ΔU/q
Impulse
I=FaverageΔt

Impulse is also equal to the change in momentum
Energy of a photon
E=hf=hc/λ       (J)
speed of a photon

c=fλ

c= 3 x 108
Magnetic Feild

Magnitude: straight/circle Bstraight0I/2πr

Bcircular0I/2r
Magnetic Force
F=qvB sinθ

F= force
q=magnitude of charge
v=velociity
B=magnitude of magnetic feild
θ=angle between the magnetic feild and the velocity of the charge
Capacitor Networks
Add inversely in series

Add directly in parallel

Voltage across parallel  capacitors is the same

Charge across capacitors in series is the same
Resistor Circuits
Add directly in series

Add inversely in parallel

Resistors in series have the same current

Reisstors in parallel have the same voltage
Current Through a Circuit
V=IR

R=resistance
I = current
V=voltage
Potential Energy of a Spring
U = 1/2 kx2 (J)
Angular Frequency
ω=2πf=√(k/m)

k= stiffness coeffecient
m=mass
Wavelength
λ=v/f

V=velocity
f=frequency
Doppler Effect
fo=fs[(1±vo/v)/(1±vs/v)]
Snell's Law
all angle are measured from a line perpendicular to the surface of the material.

n1 sinΘ1=n2 sinΘ2


light bends towards the normal when it goes to a substance with a higher refractory index
Critical Angle for total internal reflection
Θc=sin-1 (n1/n2)
Energy of light
E=hf=hc/λ

h=planks constant
f=frequency
c=speed of light
Lenses
Magnification:

m=-( i/o)
i=image distance
o=object distance

a negativve magnification mens that the image is inverted

Lens Equation:
1/f=1/o+1/i

o=distance from the object to the lense; always  +
f= + for converging andd - for diverging
i= + for real images and - for virtual images
Real vs. Virtual images
Real: the object and the images are on opposite sides of the lense and i is positive

Virtual: the object and the image are on the same side and i is negative
Atomic Particles of decay
alpha: 42He

beta: -1β

gamma: electromagnetic waves no particles are lost

Positron: 1β
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