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6 causes of cell injury
hypoxia - trauma - infectious agents - toxins - nutritional deficit - genetics
3 responses to cell injury
- adapt, be damaged, or die.
- depend on extent of injury, type of cell, and nature/duration of injury
def/ Adaptation
5 kinds
- development of a new steady state of cell
- hyperplasia, hypertropy, metaplasia, displasia, atrophy
def/ hyperplasia
Increase number of cells
def/ hypertrophy
increase in size of cells
def/ metaplasia
change in cell type
def/ fatty change
accumulation of intracytoplasmic lipid due to change in cell's ability to metabolize fat.  Detected with stains ie. Oil Red O
def/ atrophy
decrease in size of cell
def/ lipidosis
accumulation of fat in cells due to uptake of circulating FA. 
Describe what happens when cell deprived of oxygen
hypoxia → decrease in ATP → anaerobic metabolism → accumulation of lactate → inhibition of NA/K pumps → water moves in → cell swells : HYPERTROPHY
two kinds of cell death- difference?
necrosis: has inflamm. response
apoptosis: no response
Types of necrosis: describe
1) coagulative: cell outline preserved, typical to hypoxia except in brain.  ie. renal infarct
2) caseous: friable 'cheese-like' chronic leisons ie. TB
3) liquefactive: cavity filled with liquified debris ie. abcess
4) gangrenous: progression from coagulative- moist, dry and gaseous.  ie. mummification
5) fat necrosis- when fat dies.  ie. pancreatic fat necrosis
ischaemia vs. infarct
ischaemia leads to infarct.  Decreased perfusion rel. to metabolic needs therefore localized tissue necrosis
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