by skoryc


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Urinary System Overview
Nephros, Renalis= Kidney
Organs- kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra
Maintains purity of blood and other fluids by disposing of waste
Urea- from break down of amino acids
Uric Acid- nucleic acid turnover
Creatinine- creatine phospate
Regulates blood volume and chemical make up
External Kidneys
Reddish brown bean shape-retroperitoneal
Right is slightly inferior to left
Lateral convex, medial is concave
  • Hilus- area where blood vessels, nerves pass
Renal capsule- surrounds each kidney, (dense CT layer)
Cushioning by fat layers
Internal Kidneys
Cortex- outter region
  • Renal corpuscles (filters)
Medulla- Inner Region
  • base and apex are striated(group of nephrons)
  • Renal colums surround and seperate the pyramids(extensions of cortex)
  • Lobes- pyramid=cortical tissue
  • Renal sinus- opening to hilus- contains renal vessels, nerves, fat, renal pelvis, and calices
Renal pelvis- flat tube, above ureter
Calyx- extension of renal pelvis, major and minor cup shaped sarround papillae of pyramid
Kidneys Vascular/Nerve Supply
Arteries
  • Rich blood supply 20-25% of hearts systemic output
  • Renal arteries deliver blood to kidney
Veins
  • Trace artery path in reverse
  • Renal veins exit kidney and empty into IVC
Nerves
  • Renal plexus (symp innervation)
Uriniferous Tubule
structural and functional unit
Surrounded by Loose CT
2 parts-Nephron, Collecting duct
Kidney output
Produces Urin
Filtration- blood filtrate enters nephron
Reabsorption- nutrients, water, ions are returned
Secretion- undersired substances moved from blood to urine
Nephron-Renal corpuscle
(filtration)
Cortex
Glomerulus- ball of capillaires lots of pors
Surrounded by Glomerular copsule (bowmans capsule
Filtration membrane filter btwn blood and capsular space
Nephron- Proximal Convoluted Tubule
Cortex
Most active in reabsorption and secretion
Nephron- Loop of Henle
Into medulla
Decending limb- thin narrowest part of nephron
Ascending limb- Portion of thin and thick segment
Nephron- Distal Convoluted Tubule
Renal cortex
Some reabsorption and secretion
Conserves body fluid
Nephron Classes
Cortical- cortex, loop of henle into medulla
Juxtamedullary- cortex medulla border, long loops of henle
Collecting Tubules
Ducts
Receives urin from many nephrons
runs into medulla and combines with others from papillary ducts that empty into calices
Conserves body fluids- ADH acts
ADH increases permeability, causing more water to be reabsorbed
Ureters
One per kidney 25 cm
Carry urin from kidney to bladder
Starts at L@ runs retroperitoneally thru abd. enters pelvis to get to bladder obliquely
Layers- Mucosa, Muscularis, Adventitia
Distention causes contraction (peristalic waves)
Urinary Bladder
Colapsible, Distensible, muscular
Stores and eliminates urin
Below peritoneal cavity
Muscular layer has detrusor muscle
1 pint of pee
Urethra
Thin-walled tube, dranes urin from body
Smooth muscle and inner layer of mucosa
Internal urethra sphincter- btwn bladder and urethra, involuntary control
External Urethral sphincter- distal end of urethra, voluntary control
Femail 4cm
Male 20 cm
Micturition
empting the bladder
Detrusor muscle contracts, assists by abd. wall muscle
Brain controls it- bladder wall streches and activates strech receptors, sensory signal sent to pons, parasymp neurons signal detrusor muscle to contract
Incontinence
Inability to control micturition
Urinary Path
Blood-> renal corpuscle-> proximal convoluted tubule-> loop of Henle-> distal convoluted tuble-> collecting tubule(duct)-> papillary duct-> minor calyx-> major calyx-> renal pelvis-> ureter-> bladder urethra-> micturition
Renal Calculi
Kidney stones
Minerals in urin crystallize
Most pass some to big
Pyelitis
infection of renal pelvis of calices
Pyelonephritis
infection of entire kidney
Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD)
Genetic Disorder
Cysts9Fluid filled sacs) form and enlarge
No obvious simptons until 30-40
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