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Primary (deciduous) teeth
20: 8 incisors, 4 canines, 8 molars; "A" - "T", no premolars or 3rd molars
Mixed dentition
Occurs between 6 years +/- 9 months to 12 years +/- 6 months
Hypodontia
Missing teeth
Oligodontia
Missing 6+ teeth
Anodontia
Complete absence of all primary or permanent teeth
Most common missing teeth
Third molars > Lateral incisors (sometimes occur as "peg lateral" microdont) > Second premolars
Supernumerary teeth
Supplemental tooth, permanent > primary, males > females, 98% maxillary, 75% mesiodens (located midline between central incisors)
Cleidocranial dysostosis
Multiple supernumerary teeth, many impacted
Gardner's Syndrome
Multiple impacted supernumerary teeth
Molars
4/5 cusps, 2/3 roots
Primary tooth eruption
Permanent teeth
Permanent tooth eruption
Complications of dental abscess
Can lead to palatal abscess, ultimately acute cellulitis
Acute cellulitis of dental origin
Uncommon in West; seen in immunocompromised, socioeconomic factors, usually Streptococcus or Bacteroides
Dental caries
Most prevalent human disease in world; 3 requirements: plaque, sugar, Streptococci mutans
Strep mutans
Under anaerobic conditions, S. mutans metabolizes sugar to lactic acid -> dissolves calcium phosphate in enamel; enzyme involved is glucosyl transferase
Nursing bottle syndrome
Early childhood caries, from putting child to bed with bottle of fruit juice or sweetened milk
Meth mouth
AKA trench mouth, acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis, disease of tooth decay, usually lifestyle issues
Acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis
Bugs: Spriochetes, Bacteroides
Hairy tongue
Caused by filiform papillae, often under febrile conditions, typically white but will stain brown/black due to environmental causes (smoking, tea/coffee)
Salivary gland neoplasms
Majority are malignant; most common benign is pleiomorphic benign adenoma, usually in parotid gland
Torus vs polyp
Torus is a bony exostosis, polyps are soft, pedunculated and mobile
Tooth diagram
Parulis (gum boil), acts as a drainage point for a tooth abscess
Scrotal tongue, normal anatomical variant
Aphthous ulcer
Most common oral ulceration, thought to be autoimmune; 3 types: minor (<1 cm, single/multiple, shallow), major (larger and deeper), herpetiform (more numerous/vesicular)
Aphthous ulcer associations
Stress, CMV, hormones, nutritional deficiences, Crohn's, allergies, Zn deficiency, type 4 hypersensitivity
Palatal erythema differential
Trauma, Thermal, mononucleosis, thrombocytopenic purpura, leukemia, aplastic anemia
Pyogenic granuloma
Overgrowth of granulation tissue, caused by local irritation (i.e. braces, tongue piercing), pregnant women (hormonal disturbances)
Congenital syphilis dental associations
Hutchinson's "screwdriver-shaped" incisors, also "mulberry molars" with a blebbed surface
Nicotinic stomatitis
Not pre-cancerous, associated with pipe smoking
Leukoplakia
Pre-cancerous, associated with chewing tobacco (vasoconstriction)
Stenson's Duct Papilla
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