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generics
A programming language feature that allows the writing of code that supports many types
hash code
In Java
homogeneous collection
A collection in which all the elements are of the same type. All collections in Java are homogeneous.
identity
Identity refers to an object rather than its state. Two reference variables have the same identity if they both reference the same object that is
immutable
An object whose state cannot be changed. An object whose state can be changed is said to be mutable.
implementation class
A class that implements an interface
implementing class
In the context of collections
index
An integer that is used to access the elements of an indexable collection.
indexable collection
A collection in which every element is accessed by an index.
InputStream
The base class of a hierarchy of classes including FileInputStream
intersection
Intersection is a mathematical operation on two or more sets that results in a set containing only the elements common to both sets. The term is used to refer both to the result and to the operation.
java.util.Arrays
A Java utility class that contains static methods for manipulating arrays.
key
A key is a value that can be used to uniquely identify any object from a given map-based collection. What constitutes a good key may depend on the purpose of the collection.
key set
The set of all the key values for all the entries in some map. A key set is typically used to iterate over a map-based collection.
key–value pair
Maps can be viewed as a set of key–value pairs. Each entry in a map is a key–value pair. For example
length
The number of elements an array can hold.
list
An ordered collection of variable size that permits duplicate elements.
map
A collection type that relates a set of keys to their corresponding values.
mapping
Another name for a key–value pair.
natural ordering
In Java
non-destructive operation
An operation on a collection that does not change the contents in any way.
ordered collection
A collection where each element in the collection has a well-defined place
OutputStream
The base class of a hierarchy of classes including FileOutputStream
pathname
A textual representation of how to find a file or folder on a particular operating system.
persistence
The ability of objects or other data to continue in existence after a program has stopped executing.
persistent
Stored in a non-volatile form
primary sort
An initial sorting according to a particular key.
raw collection
A collection for which an element type is not specified. Java collections prior to Java 5 are raw collections.
Reader
The base class of a group of classes including FileReader and BufferedReader
relative pathname
A path to a file beginning from the current working directory
Scanner
A class used to read string tokens from a source. In M250 the source may be a FileReader or a String.
secondary sort
A sorting that can be applied after applying a primary sort in order to sort any elements that are considered equal by the primary sort.
set
A collection in which each item may appear only once – no duplicates are allowed.
sorted collection
A collection that always keeps its elements in their natural ordering
stable sort
A sort that does not reorder equal elements.
stream
An object used to connect a data source to a data sink
string interning
A process used by Java to create a pool of strings that can be reused when possible
StringBuilder
A class whose instances represent a mutable sequence of characters.
sub-array
A set of contiguous components within the same array.
subinterface
A subinterface is an interface that extends another interface (called its superinterface)
sublist
A list together with any two positions in the list may be seen as defining a new list containing just those elements between the two positions
superinterface
A superinterface is an interface that is extended by some other interface(s).
token
An item of data that can be written to or retrieved from a file. Delimiters are used to separate tokens in a file.
tree
A collection structure typified by branching connections between elements
union
Union is a mathematical operation on two or more sets that results in a set containing all of the elements of all of the sets. The term is used to refer both to the result and to the operation.
unwrapping
The process of converting a wrapped value (one contained in a wrapper class) to its primitive value equivalent.
wrapper class
Every primitive type has a corresponding wrapper class whose purpose is to hold a primitive value in a place where a primitive value is intuitively what is needed
wrapping
The process of converting a primitive value to an object equivalent
Writer
The base class of a group of classes including FileWriter and BufferedWriter
zero-based indexing
An indexing system in which the first index is 0.
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