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Tympanic bulla
The smooth bulbous enlargement on the ventral side of the temporal bone housing the middle ear.
Mandibular fossa
The area on the zygomatic arch for articulation with the articular process (condyle) of the mandible.
Optic canal
The passage way for the optic nerve from the eyeball to the brain. It is rostral to many other foramina that allow passage of other cranial nerves.
Choanae or caudal nares
The two bony openings, at the caudal end of the hard plate, leading from the nasal cavity into the pharynx.
Hard plate
The horizontal parts of thee incisive, palatine and maxillary bones, separating the baal and oral cavities.
Foramen orbitorotundum
Found in ruminants and pigs, the joining of the round and orbital foramina of other species.
Cranial cavity
The space in the cranium containing the brain, it\'s meninges and blood vessels.
Hypophyseal fossa
The depression in the floor of the cranial cavity (sphenoid bone) holding the pituitary gland (hypophysis).
Cribriform plate
The rostral part of the wall of the cranial cavity. Many holes in this part of the ethmoid bone allow the passage of the olfactory nerve.
Nasal cavity
The hollow space behind the nose, surrounded by facial bone. Divided longitudinally by the nasal septum and is filled by the ventral nasal conchae and ethmoturbinate bones.
Ventral nasal concha
A scroll of bone filling the rostral part of the nasal cavity.
Dorsal nasal concha
The largest nasal turbinate of the ethmoid bone.
Ethmoid bone
The bone in the caudal nasal cavity. Has many bony scrolls called ethmoturbinates and its cribriform plate forms the rostral wall of the cranial cavity.
Frontal sinus
The cavity (parsnasal sinus) within the frontal bone.
Petrous temporal bone
Dense bone containing structures of the inner ear.
Mandible or lower jaw bone
The largest and only mobile bone of the mammalian skull. Holds the lower teeth and consists of the right and left united at the mandibular symphysis.
The horizontal part bearing the lower incisors, canine, pemolar and molar teeth.
Mental foramen
The rostral opening of the mandibular canal.
The vertical part of the mandible bearing no teeth.
Articular process
The smooth process which articulates with the mandibular fossa of the temporal bone to form the temporomandibular joint.
Mandibular foramen
The opening on the medial side of the ramus leading into the mandibular canal.
Lumpy Jaw, Actinomycosis
Actinomycoses bovis (bacteria) invades abrasion into bone, resulting in a hard, immovable bony mass of mandible.
Parsnasal sinuses
The air filled cavities within some bones of the skull. Lined by a mucous membrane and communicate with the nasal cavity. The frontal and maxillary are best known. Others include sphenoid, palatine, lacrimal, and conchal sinuses.
Frontal sinuses
The parsnasal sinus found in the frontal bones of all domestic species. Found in the dorsal part of the skull between the orbits in horses, small ruminants, and carnivores. Extends to they back of the skull in ox and pigs. Has a number of diverticula besides the cornual diverticulum in ruminants.
Maxillary sinus
The parsnasal sinus in the maxillary bone. Opens into the nasal cavity through the nasomaxillary opening.
Conchofrontal sinuses
In horses, the joined frontal and dorsal conchal sinus.
Cornual diverticulum
The direct continuation of the frontal sinus into the cornual process in horned ruminants.
Hyoid apparatus
A number of connected bones suspending the larynx and tongue from the skull. Consists of the basihyoid, thyroid, ceratohyoid, epihyoid, stylohyoid bones, and tympanohyoid cartilage. (Memory aid: Sick Elephants Can Be Treated)
Basihyoid bone
Unpaired hyoid bone crossing the midline where it can be palpated. Carnivores lack such a process but the horse has a long one and the ox a short one.
Vertebral column
Spine or backbone: protects the spinal cord, supports thee head and serves as attachment for the muscles effecting body movements. consists of vertebra from the skull to the tail.
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