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1. What type of nerves have 12 pairs and emerge from the base of the brain?
Cranial nerves
2. Which type of neuron carries sensory information into and towards the brain and spinal cord?
Afferent neuron
3. Which nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord
4. What are some axons covered with to speed the rate of nerve impulse conduction?
Myelin sheath
5. What is the connective tissue covering the spinal cord and brain?
6. What disease is characterized by short recurrent, periodic attacks of motor, sensory, or physiological malfunctions known as seizures?
7. What are fast, predictable automatic responses to changes in the environment called?
8. The diaphragm is innervated by which nerve?
Phrenic nerve
9. What is the clear, colorless fluid that protects the brain and spinal cord against chemical and physical injuries?
10. What is located at the inferior part of the brain stem which controls the most basic life sustaining functions such as breathing?
Medulla oblongata
11. What are the 3 functions of the nervous system?
Sensory function, integrative function, motor function
12. What are the 2 main divisions of the nervous system?
Peripheral ns and central ns
13. What is the difference between the sympathetic and parasympathetic part of the autonomic nervous system?
Sympathetic neurons generally stimulate and encourage reactions but parasympathetic neurons decrease and discourage reactions
14. What is the electrical excitability of a neuron?
The capability to produce action potentials or impulses in response to stimuli
15. What are the main parts of a neuron?
Cell body, dendrites (receiving), axons (propagating)
16. What is the difference between white and grey matter?
Myelinated vs. unmyelinated
17. What are the 3 layers of spinal meninges?
Dura mater, arachnoid mater, pia mater
18. What are the 2 enlargements of the spinal cord?
Cervical and lumbar
19. What is the process of sensation?
Stimulation of sensory receptors, transduction of the stimulus, generation of impulses, integration of sensory input
19. What is the most common cause of blindness?
20. What is a dendrite?
The receiving or input portions of a neuron
21. What is multiple sclerosis?
MS is a progressive destruction of myelin sheaths of neurons of the CNS (auto-immune)
22. What are the special senses?
Smell, taste, vision, hearing, equilibrium
23. What does the autonomic nervous system regulate?
Activity of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, certain glands
24. What are the 3 branches of the PNS?
Somatic, autonomic, enteric
25. How do local anesthetics work?
sodium ion channels are blocked so the pain signals are not sent
26. What is a TIA?
A transient ischemic attack; it usually leads to a CVA (stroke)
27. What does the pons regulate?
28. What is the difference between REM and NREM sleeping?
REM is when you dream
29. What is a cataract?
Loss of transparency of the lens; it can lead to blindness
30. What is the difference between cones and rod?
Cones/color vision; rods/ black and white & peripheral vision
31. What do sensory and motor neurons do?
Sensory (afferent) provide input to the CNS; motor (efferent) carry output from the CNS to effectors
32. What does nervous tissue consist of?
Neurons and neuroglia
33. What is a synapse?
The site of functional contact between two excitable cells
34. What is white matter?
It consists of aggregations of myelinated processes
35. What do Schwann cells do?
In the PNS< Schwann cells begin to form myelin sheaths around axons during fetal development
36. What are gaps in the myelin sheath called?
Nodes of Ranvier
37. The area of skin that provides sensory input for one pair of spinal nerves is called:
A dermatome
38. Shingles is an infection caused by:
Herpes zoster
39. What is the medical term for a condition of functional sluggishness?
40. What is an acute inflammation of the brain called?
41. What is another name for a stroke?
Cerebral vascular accident
42. What is the study that deals with the functions and disorders of the nervous system?
43. The pain that occurs as a result of hitting your “funny bone” occurs as a result of what?
Hitting, and therefor irritating your ulnar nerve
44. What is shingles?
a re-exacerbation of the herpes virus which was lying dormant in the DNRG (dorsal nerve root ganglia); it typically appears as a very painful, blistery rash along a specific dermatomal distribution
45. What is quadriplegia?
paralysis of all 4 limbs
46. What is hemiplegia?
paralysis of either left half or right half of body
47. What is diplegia?
paralysis of either both upper or both lower extremities
48. How do morphine and other opium derivative pain killers work?
by altering the quality of pain perception
49. What is a concussion?
an abrupt temporary loss of consciousness (no bruising to brain)
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