Studydroid is shutting down on January 1st, 2019



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Alpha-1 Receptor (4)
  • Pupil dilation (mydriasis)
  • vasoconstriction on veins and capillary beds
  • ejaculation
  • urinary retention
Alpha-2 Receptor (2)
  • Reduction of sympathetic outflow to the heart
  • Relief of severe pain
Beta-1 Receptor (3)
  • Increased HR
  • Increased contractility and CO
  • Release of renin (and subsequent vasoconstriction)
Beta-2 Receptor (5)
  • Bronchial dilation
  • Uterine relaxation
  • Vasodilation of heart, lung and skeletal muscle arteries, liver and skeletal muscle
  • Glycogenolysis (and subsequent increase in blood glucose)
  • Increased contraction of skeletal muscle.
Bethanechol

Classification
Indications
Adverse Effects
(Urecholine)
  • Muscarinic agonist
Indications: Relieve urinary retention, investigating use for GERD, GI paralysis, adynamic ileus, gastric atony and postoperative abdominal distention. Adverse effects: Namely, hypotension and bradycardia, excessive salivation, increased gastric acid secretion, abdominal cramps and diarrhea, increased pressure with the urinary tract (problem with UTI or weak bladder wall), exacerbation of asthma, dysrhythmias in hyperthyroid patients.
Antimuscarinics mnemonic
Inhibits Parasympathetic And Sweat

Muscarinic agonists actions
Constriction (detrusor and pupil)
Relaxation (trigone and sphincter)
Increased secretion (sweat, saliva, bronchial and gastric)
Bradycardia
Muscarinic agonists member
Bethanechol (Urecholine)
Effects of Muscarinic agonist poisoning
Lacrimation Excitation of nicotinic synapses Salivation Sweating Diarrhea Underpressurized (hypotension) Micturation Bronchoconstriction
Muscarinic antagonists members (4)
Atropine, Scopolamine, Ipratropium, Oxybutynin (Ditropan)
Anticholinergics adverse effects (7)

+ 3 Hs for poisoning
dry mouth, blurred vision, photophobia, tachycardia, urinary retention, constipation and anhidrosis (suppression of sweating)

+ hyperthermia, hallucinations, hot, flushed skin
Indications for Muscarinic antagonists:
Atropine: presurgery to prevent profound bradycardia, mydriasis and ciliary paralysis for ophthalmic surgery, increase HR, decrease intestinal motility

Ipratropium bromide (Atrovent): treat asthma, COPD and rhinitis caused by common cold

Scopolamine: motion sickness, ophthalmic surgery & preanesthetic sedation and obstetric amnesia

Oxybutynin: OAB
Antihistamine member:

Indications:

Adverse effects:
Dimenhydrinate (Dramamine)

Indications: motion sickness

Adverse effects: Sedation, dry mouth, urinary retention, constipation, blurred vision
Histamine receptor agonist:

Indications:

Adverse effects:
Cimetidine (Tagamet)

Gastric and duodenal ulcers, GERD, Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, Aspiration Pneumonitis, heartburn, acid indigestion & sour stomach

Anti-adrenergic (gynecomastia, reduced libido, impotence); CNS effects (confusion, hallucinations and excitation); Pneumonia (d/t higher pH in stomach)
Terbutaline
Noncatecholamine

Asthma (bronchodilation), delay of preterm labor

Tremor (with therapeutic dose), tachycardia (with excessive dose)
Ephedrine
Noncatecholamine

Asthma, shock

Hypertension, dysrhymthia, angina and hyperglycemia
Pseudoephedrine
Sympathomimetic

Decongestion

rebound congestion, CNS stimulation, widespread vasoconstriction, hemorrhagic stroke, misuse
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