Studydroid is shutting down on January 1st, 2019



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Ibuprofem
blocks channel
NSAIDs
inhibit cycloxygenase
PE2 causes
RA and osteoarthritis
Prostaglandin E1
ED
vasodilation
ulcer healing
arachidonic acid is converted into leukotrines by
lipoxygenase which cause asthma
inflammation, bronchoconstriction and vasoconstriction
arachidonic acid is converted into prostaglandin by
cyclooxygenase
TXA2
thromboxane A2 platelet aggregation and vasoconstriction
PGF2 alpha
Smooth muscle relaxation and vasodilation
PHI2
antiplatelet aggregation and vasodilation
Insulinoma
  • Low glucose – hypoglycemia, high c peptide
  • Sweating
  • Tremor
  • Rapid heart rate
  • Anxiety
  • Hunger
  • Clouding vision
  • Confusion
  • Behavioral change
  • Convulsions
  • Loss of consciousness
glucagonoma treatment
  • Octreoide
  • Doxotubicin
  • Streptozotocin
glucagonoma symptoms
  • Malignant
  • Skin rash
  • Inflamed mouth and tongue
  • Weight loss
  • Thirst and urination
  • Elevated glucagon
  • Octreotide
glucagon inhibitors
somatostatin
insulin
glucagon
  • From a cells
  • Increases with decreased plasma glucose
  • Increased catecholamines NE and E
  • Increased plasma amino acids
  • ACH
  • CCK
Focal neuropathy
nerve weakness
proximal neuropathy
pain in thighs, hips, butt, leads to leg weakness
autonomic neuropathy
digestion
sexual response
perspiration
heart rate and bp
peripheral neuropathy
pain or loss of feeling in toe, feet, leg, hands, arms
gestational diabetes
  • no symptoms
  • maternalage, African, obese, type 2 history
type 2 diabetes
  • Polyuria and thirst
  • Weakness
  • Blurred vision
  • Peripheral neuropathy
  • obesity
type 1 diabete - insulin dependent
  • Hyperglycemia
  • Polyuria
  • Polydipsia
  • Glucosuria
  • Hypotension
  • Hunger
  • Vision change
  • Peripheral peuropathy
  • Hyperkalemia
  • Nocturia
  • Fatigue
  • Weight loss
  • Low c peptide
Neurogenic differentiation factoy 1
Neuro D1 MODY6
Normal blood glucose
  • 80-90
  • 120-140 gasting
Diseases associated with diabetes
  • Down syndrome
  • Kleinfelters
  • Turner syndrome
  • Wolframs syndrome
  • Freidreichs ataxia
  • Huntington chorea
  • Laurence moon biedl syndrome
  • Myotonic dystrophy
  • Porphyria
  • Prader willi syndrome
Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1β
HNF-1β (MODY5)
Insulin promoter factor
[IPF-1] (MODY4)
Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1α
[HNF-1α] (MODY3)
Glucokinase
(MODY2)
Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α
[HNF-4α] (MODY1)
Diabetes mellitus causes
  • Genetic defects
  • Endocrine pancreas diseases
  • Endocrinopathies
  • Drugs
  • Pregnancy
  • sommatomammotropin
Insulin functions
  • Increased glycogen synthesis
  • Increased fatty acid synthesis
  • Decreased proteinolysis
  • Decreased lipolysis
  • Decreased gluconeogenesis
  • Increased amino acid uptake
  • Increased k uptake
  • Arterial muscle tone
Regulation of blood glucose
  • Enters  B cells through GLUT2
  • Enters glycolysis and respiratory cycle ATP produced
  • K channels close and depolarize
  • Ca channels open and ca enters
  • Phospholipase c activated
  • Release of insulin
  • CREB
Insulin on liver, fat and muscle
  • Stimulates fat deposition
  • Inhibits lipolysis
  • Inhibits ketoacid
  • Decreases blood k+
  • Decreases gluconeogenesis
  • Promotes glycogenesis
  • Increases glucose uptake
Somatostatin stimulated by –
  • BG2 increase
  • AA – amino acid increase
  • FA increase
  • GI hormone increase
Somatostatin
  • Regulates insulin and glucagon
  • Depresses both on islet cells
  • Decreases gi motility
  • Decreases gi secretion and aborption
Hypoglycemia symptoms
  • Dizziness
  • Speech problems
  • Loss of consciousness
hypoglycemia causes
  • External insulin
  • Low carb sugar substitutes
  • Oral hypoglycemic agents
Polycystic ovary syndrome
anovulation and androgen excess, insulin resistance
metabolic syndrome
prediabetes, increased bp, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, canlead to hypertension obesity CVD and type 2
Acini
sac like glands with ductss
PP cell
less than 2% produce pancreatic polypeptide
D cell
3-5% produce somatostatin
B cell
70-80% islet cells contain insulin secreting
a cells
20% glucagon secreting
exocrine secretion
from acinar cells
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