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Cloned from: Gross Anatomy



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Front Back
Dura mater
"tough mother"
completely surrounds spinal cord forming a sac within vertebral canal - dural or thecal sac
continuous with endosteal layer of cranial dura and extends to S2 and is continuous with the coccygeal ligament
Epidural (extradural) space
Space between periosteum of vertebrae and the dura
contains internal vertebral venous plexus
Periosteum
Internal vertebral venous plexus
Subdural space
Potential space deep to the dura, between dura and arachnoid
Contains thin layer of fluid
Subarachnoid space
Between arachnoid and pia
Contains cerebrospinal fluid (SDF), cauda equina, and filum terminale
Cauda equina
Filum terminale
Lumber cistern
Enlarged part of subarachnoid space caudal to the conus medullaris
extends from L2-S2
Spinal tap done here, between L4 and L5
Conus medullaris
Pia mater
"soft mother"
innermost covering
gives rise to the denticulate ligament
extends from foramen magnum to between t12 and l1
Denticulate ligament
20-22 toothlike processes
Attaches to dura so that the spinal cord is suspended within the dura by the denticulate ligment
Anterior spinal artery
75% of the blood supply to the spinal cord is from the ASA (or 2/3 - confused)
From vertebral arteries
Posterior spinal arteries
Supply posterior 1/3 of spinal cord (?)
From posterior interior cerebellar arteries
Posterior radicular and spinal medullary arteries
Central (sulcal) artery
Anterior radicular and spinal medullary arteries
Segmental artery
Artery of Adamkiewicz (arteria radicularis magnus)
Most commonly arises at T10 on left side, but can arise either side and anywhere t9-t12
Seems important to find and not cut. O.o
Hairpin turn, connects to anterior spinal artery
Venous plexus
Venous vasocorona
Posterior intercostal artery
Vertebral venus plexus
external and internal vertebral venous plexuses
thin
incompetent or missing valves
Depending on pressure, venous blood can flow between veretebral plexuxes and skull, neck, thorax, abdomen, and pelvisĀ 
Pathway for metastasis of prostate cancer to vertebral column and cranial cavity
Why does the vertebral venus plexus exist?
Conus medullaris
Lumbar puncture
Usually done at the L4-5 level
L4 is at the level of the iliac crests
However, childern have longer spinal cords in relation to vertabrae, so have to do it lower on kids
CSF is tested for microbes, appearance, protein, sugar, serology, cell count
Lumber puncture can also be used to administer meds, myelography, measure increased intracranial pressure
What structures or layers does the needle pass through before reaching the subarahnoid space?
(9)
Skin
Superficial fascia
Supraspinous ligament
Interspinous ligament
Ligamentum flavum
Epidural space with fatty areolar tissue and internal vertebral venous plexus
Dura mater
Arachnoid mater
Subarachnoid space
Ligamentum flavum
Sacral hiatus
Epidural or caudal block
Administering anesthetic through the sacral hiatus
Diffuses through meninges and anesthetizes roots of the sacral and coccygeal spinal nerves in the cauda equina
Syndesmosis joint
interosseous membrane (radius/ulna)
Dento-alveolar syndesmosis/gomphosis
Tooth
Synchondrosis (Primary cartilaginous)
growth plate (epiphyseal plate)
Symphysis (Secondary Cartilaginous)
Intervertebral discs, Pubic symphysis
Synovial
Free-moving joints
Condyloid
Metacarpophalangeals
Saddle
Carpometacarpal at base of 1st digit (only one)
Anterior internal vertebral venous plexus
Veins between spinal cord and body of vertebrae
Shunts throughout
Posterior internal vertebral venous plexus
Veins between spinus process and spinal cord.
Shunts throughout
Posterior and anterior ramus
Spinal nerve spilt after dosal (spinal) ganglion. Contains both sensory and motor neurons
Posterior and anterior roots
Starts from spinal cord to form spinal nerve before splitting again into dorsal and ventral ramus
Posterior root is *sensory*
Anterior root is *dorsal*
Reflex arc
An automatic unconscious response to a situation in an attempt to maintain body homeostasis
Involves spinal nerve
Sensory neuron turns into ramus, turns into posterior root. Swings through spinal cord, travels down anterior root, ramus, and the appropriate motor neuron.
General Somatic Afferent (GSA)
Pain, Proprioception
Touch, Temperature
General Somatic Efferent (GSE)
Skeletal muscle contraction
General Visceral Afferent (GVA)
Stretch pain, Visceral Reflexes
General Visceral Efferent (GVE)
Autonomic nervous system
Special Somatic Afferent (SSA)
Hearing, Vision
Special Visceral Afferent (SVA)
Smell, Taste
Special Visceral Efferent (SVE)
Pharyngeal Arch Musculature
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