by Alisa


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Front Back
Four main functions of respiratory system?
Take in oxygen from the air
To get rid of waste products
To regulate the PH balance of blood
Ventilate the lungs
3 Processes involved in Respiration
Pulmonary ventilation
External Respiration
internal Respiration
What do we require in order to breathe?
Open airway
Muscles of respiration to work properly
Non toxic atmosphere
Stable chest wall
Lungs able to contact and relax
Free passage of gases
Good circulation
5 groups of Respiratory compromise
1.Obstruction of air passages (tongue, maxillo facial, blood, vomit, inhaled foreign material, suffocation, external pressure, drowning and internal swelling)

2.Chest or lung trauma (Blast)

3.Paralysis of muscles or tissues(electrocution, head/spinal injury, poisons and diseases)

4.Non oxygen atmosphere (smoke)

5.Lung disease and illness
Composition of inspired and expired air
O2 .... 20% to 16%
CO2 ..... 0.04% to 4%
N ...... 79% to 79%
Water vapour variable to saturated
Describe the nose and it's associated parts
Consists of external nares and vestibule that is separated by a nasal septum. In the Olfactory region is the conchae which is separated into superior, middle and inferior.
Functions of the nose
Warms, moistens, filters the air and gives us the sence of smell
Describe the Pharynx
Posterior to nasal cavity, anterior to cervical vertebrae and extends to cricoid which is about 12 to 14 cm
3 parts of the Pharynx
Nasopharynx
Oropharynx
Laryngopharynx
Describe the Larynx
Larger in males. Lays anterior to Laryngopharynx in the 3rd to 6th cervical vertebrae. Has 3 single cartilage and 3 pairs of cartilage.
Name the 3 single cartilage in the Larynx
Epiglottis(Leaf shaped)
Thyroid 🍎
Cricoid (narrowest in child)
Name the 3 PAIRS of cartilage in the Larynx
Arytenoid
Corniculate
Cuniform
Functions of the Larynx
Produces sound via vocal cords
Production of speech
Passage of air where it is humidified, warmed and filtered
Picture of Larynx
[IMGPATH:]Respiratory -14-false.jpg
Describe the Trachea
Extends from Larynx to vertebrae where bifurcation takes place(carina)

10 to 11 cm and 16 to 20 C shaped cartilage

Outer is fibrous elastic, middle is cartilage and smooth muscle and inner is ciliated columnar epithelium with goblet cells
Functions of Trachea
To support and give patency

Mucociliary escalator

cough Reflex when irritated
Describe the Bronchial tree
The bronchus splits at the point of the carina (5th thoracic vertebrae) to left and right bronchus.

Right bronchus is more acute and shorter(more likely for foreign substance to lodge)

Left bronchus is longer and narrower.
Devides into Secondary, tertiary, terminal and alveoli.
Where does external Respiration take place?
The alveoli and blood capillaries surrounding them.
Which lung has 2 lobes and why?
Left to make room for the cardiac notch
What is a hilum?
Entry point into each lung for the blood vessels, bronchi, lymph and nerves
What is the fluid called that prevents the alveoli from drying out?
Surfactant fluid
What is the Pleura
Double serous membrane which covers the lungs and the inside of the chest wall.
Which layer of the Pleura covers the lungs?
Visceral
What is the Parietal layer?
A serous membrane which covers the inside of the chest wall.
Where is serous fluid found and what is its function?
Found in between the 2 layers of serous membrane covering the chest wall and lungs, it's purpose is to prevent friction as the two layers move smoothly over each other.
Which are the only arteries that carry de-oxygenated blood
Pulmonary arteries
Which muscles are used during normal quiet breathing and what controls them contracting?
Intercostals controlled by Intercostals nerves which arise from T2 to T12

Diaphragm controlled by the phrenic nerve which arise from C3,C4 and C5.
Which muscles are used during times of increased breathing?
Accessorie muscles
(Scalenus and sternocleidomastoid)
Which process of breathing uses energy?
Inspiration
Describe the process of Inspiration
Inspiration lasts around 2 seconds.

Intercostals contract and pull the rib cage upwards and outwards.

The Diaphragm flattens

The thoracic cavity increases in size and the pressure inside the cavity will drop.

Air is forced in due to the movement of air from higher pressure atmospheric air into the lower pressure of the lungs
Describe the process of expiration
Expiration lasts about 3 seconds.

Intercostal muscles relax causing the ribcage to move downward and inwards.

The Diaphragm will relax and return to normal position reducing the size of the thoracic cavity.

The pressure in the thoracic cavity forces air out of the lungs to an area of lower pressure
What factors affect Respiration?
Loss of elasticity in tissues

Surfactant tension(collapse of alveoli)

Low Compliancy
State the quantity of dead air space
150mls (Trachea...)
What is the name of the amount of air that passes into and out of the lungs in normal quiet breathing
Tidal volume (500mls)
What is inspiratory reserve volume and how much is it?
Air we breathe beyond tidal volume during exercise / illness

3100mls
What is the maximum inspiratory capacity of the lungs?
3600mls
(reserve + tidal)
State the residual volume quantity
1200mls (air that stays in the lungs after forced expiration)
What is Expiratory reserve volume?
Largest amount of air that you can breathe out during maximal expiration.

1200mls
What is the name of the amount of air that is left in the passages and alveoli at the end of quiet expiration and how much?
Functional residual capacity

2400mls
Vital capacity is 4800mls but what does that include?
Tidal volume(500), inspiratory reserve volume(3100)and Expiratory reserve volume(1200)
How do you work out total lung capacity and what is the average volume?
Normal tidal volume x resps in 1 minute. (6000mls) (12resps??)
What is the normal PH balance of the blood?
7 to 7.4

The blood is slightly alkaline
If there is an increase in PCO2 what concentration level would you expect the hydrogen ions to be
High and therefore the blood will be more acidic
What is the name for high levels of CO2?
Hypercapnia
Where in the body will you find the medullary rhythmicity?
Medulla oblongata
What areas maintain the nervous control of Respiration? and where are they found?
Apneustic and pneumotaxic areas which are found in the pons varolli
What does the Medullary rhythmicity centre control?
Rate and depth of Respiration through the phrenic nerves and intercostal nerves
Stimulation of the Apneustic area will result in...
prolonged inspiration and shorter expiration.
Which area turns off the inspiratory area to prevent over inflation?
The pneumotaxic area forces expiration and also speed it up
Where are the chemoreceptors found in the body?
Central in the medulla bathed in CSF

also the Carotid bodies and arch of aorta.
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