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What does the kidney REGULATE
ionoc composition
blood ph (normal 7.35-7.45) 
blood volume
production of hormones
maint. of blood osmolarity
blood glucose levels

What two hormones does the kidney regulate production of
corticol & erythropoietin
What excretions does the kidney regulate?
of wastes from metabolic reactions & foreign stubstances (drugs/toxins)
How does the kidney regulate blood volume
by conserving/elimating h20
how does the kidney regulate blood pH
secreting hydrogen or conserving biocarbonate
how does the kidney regulate blood osmolity
loss of h20 & solutes

solutes are what directly affects how much h20 we hang onto!
what does the hormone calcitol control?
vit d production
what does the hormone erythropoieten control
RBC production
what is the renal hilum (what does it merge with)
indent where:

Ureter emerges along w/

blood vessels
Lymphatic vessels
& Nerves
What are the 3 layers of tissues surrounding the kidney
renal capsule

adipose capsule

renal fascia
Explain the renal capsule & it's functions
it's smooth!
it's the deep layer

It is transparent!

it is fibrous connective tiss. membrane

covers/continueous w/ outer coat of ureter

What does the renal capsule protect against?


maint. great kidney shape!
Explain the adipose capsule & its functions

What does it have a lot of

what does it protect the kidney from?

How does it do these things?
has A LOT of fat

protects kidney from:

jumping, running, moving around

"Tucks it in"
Explain the Renal Fascia
it's the superficial layer

it is very THIN

it anchors the kidney to surrounding structures & abdominal wall
what percent do kidneys constitute?
less than 0.5% of total body mass
What percent of cardiact output do kidneys recieve
Where does blood enter the kidneys?
the L & R arteries
how many afferent arterioles does each nephron have?
Where does the afferent arterliole bring blood to the nephron (to/away) ?
Toward it
After the nephron gets blood toward it via afferent arteriole - what does it divide into?
glomerulus (capillary ball)
When reunited, what is formed
an efferent arteriole
Why is the positioning of the cappillaries unique?
In most the capillaries are located between the arteriole & venule

where in this case it's b/t an arteriole & arteriole
What happens after they are reunited to form efferent arteriole?
they divide to form peritubular cappillaries

What do some have after being reunited to form efferent arteriole?
vasa recta
What exits the kidney
rena vein
What ANS system are the renal nerves part of
What are most of the renal nerves?
vasomotor nerves that regulate blood flow
If a nephron is injured or diseased can we make new ones?
What are the 2 parts of the nephrons in the kidneys
renal corpsucle

renal tubule
What does the renal corpsucle filter
blood plasma
Can you live with one kidney? How does that work?
The remaining kidneys nephrons would enlarge and just take over
What is the renal corpsucle also known as
What is the glomerulus a network of in the renal corpsucle
What sort of shape does the glomerular capsule take up in the renal corpsucle
a double walled cup
what does the glomerular capsule surround in the renal corpsucle
In the renal tubule, what is filtered and passes into other places?
After the blood is filtered of blood plasma where does it go
to the renal tubule system
Where does the blood start off in the renal tubule after filtered?
the proximal convoluted tubule
what is the PROXIMAL covoluted tubule closest to
the glomerulus
Where does the blood go to after the proximal covoluted tubule
descending/ascending loop of henle

aka nephron loop
Where does the blood go after the nephron loop/ descending/ascending loop of henle
distal convuluted tube
Where are both the renal corpuscle & covulted tubules (outer portion) found?
the cortex
Where does the loop of Henle extend into
Where does the distal convoluted tubule of several nephrons empty into?
single collecting duct
WHat percent of nephrons are corticol nephrons
What extends into the OUTER REGION of the medulla
the SHORT loops of henle & renal corpuscle in outer portion of cortex
what percent of nephrons do the juxtamedullawy nephrons make up
What extends DEEP into the medulla
long loops of henle & renal corpuscle
What o the juxtamedullawy nephrons recieve blood from?
peritubular capillaries & vasa recta
what is the shape of the vasa recta and what does it supply?
long loopy capillaries that supply tubular portion of nephrone
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