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Epidemic
A hug proportion of a population is susceptible to a particular infectious agent. Over a short period of time a large number of people become infected.
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Pandemic
A worldwide epidemic
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Endemic
Due to a sufficient amount of susceptible people resulting in a permanent presents in the population
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Susceptible
Capable of sustaining an infection
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zoonoses
Agents that are transmitted to humans by at least one other species of vertebrate under naturally occurring conditions
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Immunology
Scientific study of the immune system
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Immunity
The aquired resistance of infectious agents
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Public health strategies
Improve the health of the whole population.
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Vaccine preventable diseases
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Vector - borne disease
Infectious diseases caused by pathogens or parasites that are transmitted to humans via insects or other invertebrates. Infected individuals are not directly infectious to others.
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Reservoirs of infection
Non-specific hosts of a zoonotic pathogen
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Infant mortality rate
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Pestilence
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Microbes
Organisms which can only be seen under a microscope. Includes viruses and prion.
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Pathogen
A microbe that causes infectious diseases
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Case fatality rate
The proportion of infected individuals who die
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Parasite
Everyday language, single cell or invertebrates that live on a host and derive benefits but cause harm to the host
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Host
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Infectious disease
Term for all diseases caused by pathogens and parasites.
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Aetiology
Underlying cause for disease
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Koch's postulates
Rules to distinguish between pathogenic microbes and harmless ones found in the same patient
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Surveillance data
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Morbidity
Number of episodes of disabilities
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Mortality
The number of deaths from a specific disease
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Communicable disease
Infectious diseases transmitted between humans
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Acute infection
Diseases that kill the host or resolve quickly, within days or weeks.
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Sterile immunity
The complete elimination of the disease due to the host immune system.
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Latent infection
Pathogens hidden in the body but not eliminated or cause any symptoms
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Chronic infection
Infectous agent that is not eliminated by the hosts immune system and continues to produce disease symptoms and tissue damage over months and years
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Emerging infectious diseases
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Notifiable disease
Data on certain diseases of gobal importance are routinely report to WHO and tracks long - term trends in their spread and prevalence
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Selection pressure
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Antibiotic resistance
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Epidemiology
Collection and statistical analysis of surveillance data on human deaths, diseases and disabilities, looking for patterns in their distribution in the population that suggests hypotheses about underlying causes.
Demographic variables
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Cross - sectional data
Collection of data from a single source or region over a short period of one time
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Longitudinal data
Data collected routinely from the same place or region at successive intervals (often annually, but at least every few years, I order to identify changing trends in the occurrence of a disease over time.
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Disability adjusted life years (DALYs)
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Health adjusted life expectancy
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Pathobiology
The study of biological agents that cause disease
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Symbiosis
Close , prolonged relationship between two or more organisms of different species. There are a number of different types
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mutualism
Where both parties benefit from the situation
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Commensalism
Only one species benefits, the commensal, but the host remains unaffected.
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Parasitism
One organism (the parasite), of two, lives on , off or at the expense of the other (host)
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Pathology
How infectious agent in interact with humans to illness
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Opportunistic pathogens
Organisms that can only cause disease in individuals whose defence s have been compromised
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Pili
An attachment hair like structure on bacteria
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Flagella
Whip like organelles that protrude from the cell surface and are used for the movement or feeding
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Biota
All the living organisms of a particular area.
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Horizontal transmission
Infectious agents spread in a population by transmission through any route except from mother to baby in utero, childbirth, or in breast milk.
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