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Addison's Syndrome
A condition in which the supply of adrenal steroids is inadequate, either due to damage to the adrenals themselves or to failure of ACTH secretion
adenohypophysis
The anterior lobe of the pituitary gland that secretes six glycoprotein hormones
adenyl cyclase
Converts a small fraction of the cell's supply of ATP into cAMP.
adrenal medulla
A branch of the sympathetic nervous system that secretes catacholamines, epinephrine, and norepinephrine.
adrenalin
The catecholamine epinephrine
aldosterone
An adrenal cortical steroid that plays an important role in regulating both Na+ content, and with ADH, extracellular fluid voluem.
alkalosis
Excessive plasma alkalinity.
angiotension I
Converts to angiotensin II by angiotension-converting enzyme (ACE).
angiotensinogen
A plasma protein that splits off angiotensin I when acted on by renin.
anterior lobe
the adenohypophysis or pars distalis.
antidiuretic hormone
Also known as vasopressin, ADH increases the rate of recovery of water from collecting ducts in the kidney, thus, it promotes water conservation and the production of scanty, concentrated urine.
arachidonic acid
A fatty acid present in plasma membranes
atrial natriuretic factor (ANF)
A peptide hormone released by the muscle fibers of the atria that, along with ADH and aldosterone, regulates kidney function
Basal metabolic rate (BMR)
The rate of energy use that is unrelated to specific body activities such as eating, exercise, or keeping warm.
calcitonin
A hormone secreted by the thyroid that stimulates bone calcification.
calcium ion (Ca++)
An important second messenger involved in activating secretion in exocrine and endocrine glands.
calmodulin
The major Ca++ binding protein for a smooth muscle and nonmuscle cells.
carrier proteins
Specific proteins that carry steroid hormones in the blood as complexes.
cell-surface receptors
Hormones are recognized by these membrane-spanning receptors that then generate an intracellular second messenger.
cholecystokinin (CCK)
Inhibits gastric emptying and stimulates gall bladder contractions to increase delivery of digestive enzymes to the duodenum.
colloid
A protein matrix that acts as a reservoir for iodine accumulated in the thyroid from the blood.
Chushing's syndrome
A condition in which excessive adrenal activity is generally the result of excessive secretion of ACTH.
cyclic adenosine monophosphate
(cAMP)
The cyclic nucleotide that acts as a second messenger.
diabetes mellitus
Failure of the pancreas to secrete adequate insulin.
diacylglycerol
A signaling substance that is a hydrophobic molecule that diffuses freely within the plasma membrane and acts on a specific family of protein kinases (C kinases) distinct from that affected by cyclic nucleotides.
dihydrotestosterone
A gonadal male hormone
endocrine gland
A structure specialized
for production and
secretion of hormones
endorphins
Peptide hormones involved in the
process by which the body
modulates its own pain sensitivity.
enkephalins
Peptide hormones involved in the process by which the body modulates its own pain sensitivity
epinephrine
Secreted by the adrenal medulla, a catecholamine that is an important hormone, along with cortisol and glucagon, of the postabsorptive state.
erythropoietin (EPO)
A hormone that acts on the hematopoietic tissue of flat bones to stimulate the production of red blood cells.
estrogens
The gonadal female sex hormones.
exopthalmos
A protrusion of the eyes due to hyperthyroidism.
gastrin
A mediator secreted by the stomach that stimulates secretion of acid and pepsin by the gastric mucosa. 
glucagon
Secreted by the pancreas, a hormone, along with cortisol and epinephrine, that is importat in the postabsorptive state. 
Glucose tolerance test
A test for the clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus in which the patient fasts until the postabsorptive state is reached, then ingests a glucose meal.
glucose-dependent insulinotropic hormone (GIP)
A hormone released in response to the appearance of a carbohydrate meal in the duodenum and stimulates an early release of insulin in advance of the appearance of the glucose in the blood.
hematocrit
The fraction of blood volume that is red blood cells.
human growth hormone (HGH)
A hormone that plays a central role in the control of growth throughout the body.
hypertension
Elevated blood pressure.
Hypocalcemia
A drop in plasma Ca++
Hypokalemia
Depressed plasma K+
hypothalamopituitary portal system
A special variety of blood circulation that involves two sets of capillaries connected by one or more portal veins.
hypothyroid cretinism
A form of intellectual disability caused by early thyroid defeciency.
hypovolemia
A decrease in the volume of the circulating blood
islets of Langerhans
Endocrine cells embedded in the exocrine tissue that secrete three major protein hormones: glucagon, insulin, and somatostatin.
leptin
A protein hormone released by adipose cells in proportion to their stored fat content that acts on the CNS to suppress appetite.
melanocyte-stimulating hormones
A family of hormones included in the POMC sequence that are important in animals that change color, but apparently have no normal function in humans.
melatonin
A hormone secreted by the pineal gland that plays an important role in synchronizing the twenty-four-hour cycle of the body and promoting rest during darknes.
motilin
A hormone that stimulates periodic waves of contraction in the postabsorptive gut, which we identify as "stomach growling".
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