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Acid-Balanced Waves
Not true acid waves, as they have a pH between 7.8 and 8.2 and use glyceryl monthioglycolate (GMTG) as the primary reducing agent. Acid-balanced waves process at room temperature, do not require the added heat of a hair dryer, process more quickly, and produce firmer curls than true acid waves
Alkaline Waves
(or cold waves)
Have a pH betwwen 9.0 and 9.6 use ammonium thioglycolate (ATC) as the reducing agent, and process at room temperature
Amino Acids
Compounds made up of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen
Ammonia-Free Waves
Perms use alkanolamines instead of ammonia, and are popular because of their low odor
Ammonium Thioglycolate (ATG)
Active ingredient or reducing agent in alkaline permanents
Base Cream or Protective Base Cream
Oily cream used to protect the skin and scalp druing hair relaxing
Base Control
Position of the rod in relation to its base section, determined by the angleat which the hair is wrapped
Base Direction
Angle at which the rod is positioned on the head (horizontally, vertically, or diagonally); also, the directional pattern in which the hair is wrapped
Base Placement
The position of the rod in relation to its base section, and is determined by the angle at whichthe hair is wrapped.  Rods can be wrapped on base, half off base, or off base
Base Relaxers
Relaxers that require the application of protective base cream to the entire scalp prior to the application of the relaxer
Base Sections
Subsections of panels into which hair is divided for perm wrapping; one rod is norally placed on each base section
Basic Perm Wrap
Perm wrap in which all the rods within a panel move in the same direction and are positioned on equal-size bases; all base sections are horizontal, with the same length and width as the perm rod
Bookend Wrap
Perm wrap in which one end paper is folded in half over the hair ends like an envelope
Bricklay Perm Wrap
Perm wrap similar to actual technique of bricklaying; base sections are offset from each other row by row
Chemical Hair Relaxing
Rearranges the structure of curly hair into a straighter or smoother form
Chemical Texture Services
Hair services that cause a chemical change that permanently alters the natural wave pattern of the hair
Concave Rods
Perm rods that have a smaller diameter in the center that increases to a larger diameter on the ends
Cortex
Middle layer of hair, located directly beneath the cuticle layer.  The cortex is responsible for the incredible strengthand and elasticity of human hair
Croquignole Perms
Perms in which the hair strands are wrapped at an angle perpendicular to the perm rod, in overlapping concentric layers
Curvature Perm Wrap
Perm wrap in which partings and bases radiate throughout the panels to follow the curvature of the head
Disulfide Bonds
Chemical side bonds that are formed when the sulfur atoms in two adjacent protein chains are joined together.  Disulfide bonds can only be broken by chemicals and cannot be broken by heat or water
Double Flat Wrap
Perm wrap in which one end paper is placed under, and one is placed over, the strand of hair being wrapped
Double-Rod (piggyback) Technique
Perm wrap in which two rods are used for one strand of hair, one on top of the other
Endothermic Waves
Perm activated by an outside heat source, usually a conventional hood-type hair dryer
End Papers or End Wraps
Absorbent papersused to control the ends of the hair when wrapping and winding hair on perm rods
Exothermic Waves
Creates an exothermic chemical reaction that heats up the waving solution and speeds up processing
Glyceryl Monothioglycolate (GMTG)
Main active ingredient in true acid and acid-balanced waving lotions
Half Off-Base Placement
Base control in which the hair is wrapped at an angle of 90 degrees (perpendicular) to its base section and the rod is positioned half off its base section
Hydrogen Bonds
Weak physical side bonds that are the result of an attraction between opposite electrical charges; easily broken by water, as in wet setting, or heat, as in thermal styling, and re-form as the hair dries or cools
Hydroxide Neutralization
The neutralization of hydroxide relaxers is an acid-alkali neutralization reaction that neutralizes (deactivates) the alkaline residues left in the hair by the hydroxide relaxer and lowers the pH of the hair and scalp.  Hydroxide relaxer neutralization does not involve oxidation or rebuild disulfide bonds.
Hydroxide Relaxers
Very strong alkalis with a pH over 13.  The hydroxide ion is the active ingredient in all hydroxide relaxers.
Lanthionization
Process by which hydroxide relaxers permanently straighten hair; breaks the hair's disulfide bonds during processing and converts them to lanthionine bonds when the relaxer is rinsed from the hair
Loop or Circle Rod
Tool that is usually about 12" long with a uniform diameter along the entire length of the rod
Low-pH Waves
Perms that work at a low pH, and use sulfates, sulfites, and bisulfites as an alternative to ammonium thioglycolate
Medulla
Innermost layer of the hair and is often called the pith or core of the hair
Metal Hydroxide Relaxers
Ionic compounds formed by a metal (sodium, potassium, or lithium) combined with oxygen and hydrogen
No-Base Relaxers
Relaxersthat do not require application of a protective base cream
Normalizing Lotions
Conditioners that restore the hair's natural pH after a hydroxide relaxer and prior to shampooing
Off-Base Placement
Base control in which the hair is wrapped at a 45 degree angle below perpendicular to its base section, and the rod is positioned completely off its base section
On-Base Placement
Base control in which the hair is wrapped at a 45 degree angle beyond perpendicular to it's base section and the rod is positioned on its base section
Peptide Bonds or End Bonds
Chemical bonds that join amino acids together to form polypeptide chains
Polypeptide Chains
Long chains of amino acids joined together by peptide bonds
Salt Bonds
Relatively weak physical side bonds that are the result of an attraction between opposite electrical charges; easily broken by changes in pH, as in permanent waving, and re-form when the pH returns to normal
Side Bonds
Disulfide, salt, and hydrogen bonds that cross-link polypeptide chains together.  Side bonds are responsible for the elasticity and incredible strength of the hair
Single Flat Wrap
Perm wrap that is similar to double flat wrap but uses only one end paper, placed over the top of the strand of hair being wrapped
Soft Bender Rods
Tool about 12 inches long with a uniform diameter along the entire length.  These soft foam rods have a stiff wire inside that permits them to be bent into almost any shape
Soft Curl Permanent
Combination of a thio relaxer and a thio permanent wrapped on large rods to make esixting curl larger and looser
Spiral Perm Wrap
Hair is wrapped at an agle other than perpendicular to the end of the rod, which causes the hair to spiral along the length of the rod, similar to the grip on a tennis racket
Straight Rods
Perm rods that are equal in diameter along their entire length or curling area
Thioglycolic Acid
Colorless liquid with a strong unpleasant odor; provides the hydrogen that causes the reduction reaction in permanent waving solutions
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